s/NULL/nullptr/
[xonotic/gmqcc.git] / ast.cpp
1 #include <new>
2
3 #include <stdlib.h>
4 #include <string.h>
5
6 #include "gmqcc.h"
7 #include "ast.h"
8 #include "parser.h"
9
10 #define ast_instantiate(T, ctx, destroyfn)                          \
11     T* self = (T*)mem_a(sizeof(T));                                 \
12     if (!self) {                                                    \
13         return nullptr;                                                \
14     }                                                               \
15     new (self) T();                                                 \
16     ast_node_init((ast_node*)self, ctx, TYPE_##T);                  \
17     ( (ast_node*)self )->destroy = (ast_node_delete*)destroyfn
18
19 /*
20  * forward declarations, these need not be in ast.h for obvious
21  * static reasons.
22  */
23 static bool ast_member_codegen(ast_member*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
24 static void ast_array_index_delete(ast_array_index*);
25 static bool ast_array_index_codegen(ast_array_index*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
26 static void ast_argpipe_delete(ast_argpipe*);
27 static bool ast_argpipe_codegen(ast_argpipe*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
28 static void ast_store_delete(ast_store*);
29 static bool ast_store_codegen(ast_store*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
30 static void ast_ifthen_delete(ast_ifthen*);
31 static bool ast_ifthen_codegen(ast_ifthen*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
32 static void ast_ternary_delete(ast_ternary*);
33 static bool ast_ternary_codegen(ast_ternary*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
34 static void ast_loop_delete(ast_loop*);
35 static bool ast_loop_codegen(ast_loop*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
36 static void ast_breakcont_delete(ast_breakcont*);
37 static bool ast_breakcont_codegen(ast_breakcont*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
38 static void ast_switch_delete(ast_switch*);
39 static bool ast_switch_codegen(ast_switch*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
40 static void ast_label_delete(ast_label*);
41 static void ast_label_register_goto(ast_label*, ast_goto*);
42 static bool ast_label_codegen(ast_label*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
43 static bool ast_goto_codegen(ast_goto*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
44 static void ast_goto_delete(ast_goto*);
45 static void ast_call_delete(ast_call*);
46 static bool ast_call_codegen(ast_call*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
47 static bool ast_block_codegen(ast_block*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
48 static void ast_unary_delete(ast_unary*);
49 static bool ast_unary_codegen(ast_unary*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
50 static void ast_entfield_delete(ast_entfield*);
51 static bool ast_entfield_codegen(ast_entfield*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
52 static void ast_return_delete(ast_return*);
53 static bool ast_return_codegen(ast_return*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
54 static void ast_binstore_delete(ast_binstore*);
55 static bool ast_binstore_codegen(ast_binstore*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
56 static void ast_binary_delete(ast_binary*);
57 static bool ast_binary_codegen(ast_binary*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
58 static bool ast_state_codegen(ast_state*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
59
60 /* It must not be possible to get here. */
61 static GMQCC_NORETURN void _ast_node_destroy(ast_node *self)
62 {
63     (void)self;
64     con_err("ast node missing destroy()\n");
65     exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
66 }
67
68 /* Initialize main ast node aprts */
69 static void ast_node_init(ast_node *self, lex_ctx_t ctx, int nodetype)
70 {
71     self->context = ctx;
72     self->destroy = &_ast_node_destroy;
73     self->keep    = false;
74     self->nodetype = nodetype;
75     self->side_effects = false;
76 }
77
78 /* weight and side effects */
79 static void _ast_propagate_effects(ast_node *self, ast_node *other)
80 {
81     if (ast_side_effects(other))
82         ast_side_effects(self) = true;
83 }
84 #define ast_propagate_effects(s,o) _ast_propagate_effects(((ast_node*)(s)), ((ast_node*)(o)))
85
86 /* General expression initialization */
87 static void ast_expression_init(ast_expression *self,
88                                 ast_expression_codegen *codegen)
89 {
90     self->codegen  = codegen;
91     self->vtype    = TYPE_VOID;
92     self->next     = nullptr;
93     self->outl     = nullptr;
94     self->outr     = nullptr;
95     self->count    = 0;
96     self->varparam = nullptr;
97     self->flags    = 0;
98     if (OPTS_OPTION_BOOL(OPTION_COVERAGE))
99         self->flags |= AST_FLAG_BLOCK_COVERAGE;
100 }
101
102 static void ast_expression_delete(ast_expression *self)
103 {
104     if (self->next)
105         ast_delete(self->next);
106     for (auto &it : self->params)
107         ast_delete(it);
108     if (self->varparam)
109         ast_delete(self->varparam);
110 }
111
112 static void ast_expression_delete_full(ast_expression *self)
113 {
114     ast_expression_delete(self);
115     mem_d(self);
116 }
117
118 ast_value* ast_value_copy(const ast_value *self)
119 {
120     const ast_expression *fromex;
121     ast_expression *selfex;
122     ast_value *cp = ast_value_new(self->expression.node.context, self->name, self->expression.vtype);
123     if (self->expression.next) {
124         cp->expression.next = ast_type_copy(self->expression.node.context, self->expression.next);
125     }
126     fromex = &self->expression;
127     selfex = &cp->expression;
128     selfex->count = fromex->count;
129     selfex->flags = fromex->flags;
130     for (auto &it : fromex->params) {
131         ast_value *v = ast_value_copy(it);
132         selfex->params.push_back(v);
133     }
134     return cp;
135 }
136
137 void ast_type_adopt_impl(ast_expression *self, const ast_expression *other)
138 {
139     const ast_expression *fromex;
140     ast_expression *selfex;
141     self->vtype = other->vtype;
142     if (other->next) {
143         self->next = (ast_expression*)ast_type_copy(ast_ctx(self), other->next);
144     }
145     fromex = other;
146     selfex = self;
147     selfex->count = fromex->count;
148     selfex->flags = fromex->flags;
149     for (auto &it : fromex->params) {
150         ast_value *v = ast_value_copy(it);
151         selfex->params.push_back(v);
152     }
153 }
154
155 static ast_expression* ast_shallow_type(lex_ctx_t ctx, int vtype)
156 {
157     ast_instantiate(ast_expression, ctx, ast_expression_delete_full);
158     ast_expression_init(self, nullptr);
159     self->codegen = nullptr;
160     self->next    = nullptr;
161     self->vtype   = vtype;
162     return self;
163 }
164
165 ast_expression* ast_type_copy(lex_ctx_t ctx, const ast_expression *ex)
166 {
167     const ast_expression *fromex;
168     ast_expression       *selfex;
169
170     if (!ex)
171         return nullptr;
172     else
173     {
174         ast_instantiate(ast_expression, ctx, ast_expression_delete_full);
175         ast_expression_init(self, nullptr);
176
177         fromex = ex;
178         selfex = self;
179
180         /* This may never be codegen()d */
181         selfex->codegen = nullptr;
182
183         selfex->vtype = fromex->vtype;
184         if (fromex->next)
185             selfex->next = ast_type_copy(ctx, fromex->next);
186         else
187             selfex->next = nullptr;
188
189         selfex->count = fromex->count;
190         selfex->flags = fromex->flags;
191         for (auto &it : fromex->params) {
192             ast_value *v = ast_value_copy(it);
193             selfex->params.push_back(v);
194         }
195
196         return self;
197     }
198 }
199
200 bool ast_compare_type(ast_expression *a, ast_expression *b)
201 {
202     if (a->vtype == TYPE_NIL ||
203         b->vtype == TYPE_NIL)
204         return true;
205     if (a->vtype != b->vtype)
206         return false;
207     if (!a->next != !b->next)
208         return false;
209     if (a->params.size() != b->params.size())
210         return false;
211     if ((a->flags & AST_FLAG_TYPE_MASK) !=
212         (b->flags & AST_FLAG_TYPE_MASK) )
213     {
214         return false;
215     }
216     if (a->params.size()) {
217         size_t i;
218         for (i = 0; i < a->params.size(); ++i) {
219             if (!ast_compare_type((ast_expression*)a->params[i],
220                                   (ast_expression*)b->params[i]))
221                 return false;
222         }
223     }
224     if (a->next)
225         return ast_compare_type(a->next, b->next);
226     return true;
227 }
228
229 static size_t ast_type_to_string_impl(ast_expression *e, char *buf, size_t bufsize, size_t pos)
230 {
231     const char *typestr;
232     size_t typelen;
233     size_t i;
234
235     if (!e) {
236         if (pos + 6 >= bufsize)
237             goto full;
238         util_strncpy(buf + pos, "(null)", 6);
239         return pos + 6;
240     }
241
242     if (pos + 1 >= bufsize)
243         goto full;
244
245     switch (e->vtype) {
246         case TYPE_VARIANT:
247             util_strncpy(buf + pos, "(variant)", 9);
248             return pos + 9;
249
250         case TYPE_FIELD:
251             buf[pos++] = '.';
252             return ast_type_to_string_impl(e->next, buf, bufsize, pos);
253
254         case TYPE_POINTER:
255             if (pos + 3 >= bufsize)
256                 goto full;
257             buf[pos++] = '*';
258             buf[pos++] = '(';
259             pos = ast_type_to_string_impl(e->next, buf, bufsize, pos);
260             if (pos + 1 >= bufsize)
261                 goto full;
262             buf[pos++] = ')';
263             return pos;
264
265         case TYPE_FUNCTION:
266             pos = ast_type_to_string_impl(e->next, buf, bufsize, pos);
267             if (pos + 2 >= bufsize)
268                 goto full;
269             if (e->params.empty()) {
270                 buf[pos++] = '(';
271                 buf[pos++] = ')';
272                 return pos;
273             }
274             buf[pos++] = '(';
275             pos = ast_type_to_string_impl((ast_expression*)(e->params[0]), buf, bufsize, pos);
276             for (i = 1; i < e->params.size(); ++i) {
277                 if (pos + 2 >= bufsize)
278                     goto full;
279                 buf[pos++] = ',';
280                 buf[pos++] = ' ';
281                 pos = ast_type_to_string_impl((ast_expression*)(e->params[i]), buf, bufsize, pos);
282             }
283             if (pos + 1 >= bufsize)
284                 goto full;
285             buf[pos++] = ')';
286             return pos;
287
288         case TYPE_ARRAY:
289             pos = ast_type_to_string_impl(e->next, buf, bufsize, pos);
290             if (pos + 1 >= bufsize)
291                 goto full;
292             buf[pos++] = '[';
293             pos += util_snprintf(buf + pos, bufsize - pos - 1, "%i", (int)e->count);
294             if (pos + 1 >= bufsize)
295                 goto full;
296             buf[pos++] = ']';
297             return pos;
298
299         default:
300             typestr = type_name[e->vtype];
301             typelen = strlen(typestr);
302             if (pos + typelen >= bufsize)
303                 goto full;
304             util_strncpy(buf + pos, typestr, typelen);
305             return pos + typelen;
306     }
307
308 full:
309     buf[bufsize-3] = '.';
310     buf[bufsize-2] = '.';
311     buf[bufsize-1] = '.';
312     return bufsize;
313 }
314
315 void ast_type_to_string(ast_expression *e, char *buf, size_t bufsize)
316 {
317     size_t pos = ast_type_to_string_impl(e, buf, bufsize-1, 0);
318     buf[pos] = 0;
319 }
320
321 static bool ast_value_codegen(ast_value *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out);
322 ast_value* ast_value_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, const char *name, int t)
323 {
324     ast_instantiate(ast_value, ctx, ast_value_delete);
325     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self,
326                         (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_value_codegen);
327     self->expression.node.keep = true; /* keep */
328
329     self->name = name ? util_strdup(name) : nullptr;
330     self->expression.vtype = t;
331     self->expression.next  = nullptr;
332     self->isfield  = false;
333     self->cvq      = CV_NONE;
334     self->hasvalue = false;
335     self->isimm    = false;
336     self->inexact  = false;
337     self->uses     = 0;
338     memset(&self->constval, 0, sizeof(self->constval));
339
340     self->ir_v           = nullptr;
341     self->ir_values      = nullptr;
342     self->ir_value_count = 0;
343
344     self->setter = nullptr;
345     self->getter = nullptr;
346     self->desc   = nullptr;
347
348     self->argcounter = nullptr;
349     self->intrinsic = false;
350
351     return self;
352 }
353
354 void ast_value_delete(ast_value* self)
355 {
356     if (self->name)
357         mem_d((void*)self->name);
358     if (self->argcounter)
359         mem_d((void*)self->argcounter);
360     if (self->hasvalue) {
361         switch (self->expression.vtype)
362         {
363         case TYPE_STRING:
364             mem_d((void*)self->constval.vstring);
365             break;
366         case TYPE_FUNCTION:
367             /* unlink us from the function node */
368             self->constval.vfunc->vtype = nullptr;
369             break;
370         /* NOTE: delete function? currently collected in
371          * the parser structure
372          */
373         default:
374             break;
375         }
376     }
377     if (self->ir_values)
378         mem_d(self->ir_values);
379
380     if (self->desc)
381         mem_d(self->desc);
382
383     // initlist imples an array which implies .next in the expression exists.
384     if (self->initlist.size() && self->expression.next->vtype == TYPE_STRING) {
385         for (auto &it : self->initlist)
386             if (it.vstring)
387                 mem_d(it.vstring);
388     }
389
390     ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
391     mem_d(self);
392 }
393
394 void ast_value_params_add(ast_value *self, ast_value *p)
395 {
396     self->expression.params.push_back(p);
397 }
398
399 bool ast_value_set_name(ast_value *self, const char *name)
400 {
401     if (self->name)
402         mem_d((void*)self->name);
403     self->name = util_strdup(name);
404     return !!self->name;
405 }
406
407 ast_binary* ast_binary_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, int op,
408                            ast_expression* left, ast_expression* right)
409 {
410     ast_instantiate(ast_binary, ctx, ast_binary_delete);
411     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_binary_codegen);
412
413     if (ast_istype(right, ast_unary) && OPTS_OPTIMIZATION(OPTIM_PEEPHOLE)) {
414         ast_unary      *unary  = ((ast_unary*)right);
415         ast_expression *normal = unary->operand;
416
417         /* make a-(-b) => a + b */
418         if (unary->op == VINSTR_NEG_F || unary->op == VINSTR_NEG_V) {
419             if (op == INSTR_SUB_F) {
420                 op = INSTR_ADD_F;
421                 right = normal;
422                 ++opts_optimizationcount[OPTIM_PEEPHOLE];
423             } else if (op == INSTR_SUB_V) {
424                 op = INSTR_ADD_V;
425                 right = normal;
426                 ++opts_optimizationcount[OPTIM_PEEPHOLE];
427             }
428         }
429     }
430
431     self->op = op;
432     self->left = left;
433     self->right = right;
434     self->right_first = false;
435
436     ast_propagate_effects(self, left);
437     ast_propagate_effects(self, right);
438
439     if (op >= INSTR_EQ_F && op <= INSTR_GT)
440         self->expression.vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
441     else if (op == INSTR_AND || op == INSTR_OR) {
442         if (OPTS_FLAG(PERL_LOGIC))
443             ast_type_adopt(self, right);
444         else
445             self->expression.vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
446     }
447     else if (op == INSTR_BITAND || op == INSTR_BITOR)
448         self->expression.vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
449     else if (op == INSTR_MUL_VF || op == INSTR_MUL_FV)
450         self->expression.vtype = TYPE_VECTOR;
451     else if (op == INSTR_MUL_V)
452         self->expression.vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
453     else
454         self->expression.vtype = left->vtype;
455
456     /* references all */
457     self->refs = AST_REF_ALL;
458
459     return self;
460 }
461
462 void ast_binary_delete(ast_binary *self)
463 {
464     if (self->refs & AST_REF_LEFT)  ast_unref(self->left);
465     if (self->refs & AST_REF_RIGHT) ast_unref(self->right);
466
467     ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
468     mem_d(self);
469 }
470
471 ast_binstore* ast_binstore_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, int storop, int op,
472                                ast_expression* left, ast_expression* right)
473 {
474     ast_instantiate(ast_binstore, ctx, ast_binstore_delete);
475     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_binstore_codegen);
476
477     ast_side_effects(self) = true;
478
479     self->opstore = storop;
480     self->opbin   = op;
481     self->dest    = left;
482     self->source  = right;
483
484     self->keep_dest = false;
485
486     ast_type_adopt(self, left);
487     return self;
488 }
489
490 void ast_binstore_delete(ast_binstore *self)
491 {
492     if (!self->keep_dest)
493         ast_unref(self->dest);
494     ast_unref(self->source);
495     ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
496     mem_d(self);
497 }
498
499 ast_unary* ast_unary_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, int op,
500                          ast_expression *expr)
501 {
502     ast_instantiate(ast_unary, ctx, ast_unary_delete);
503     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_unary_codegen);
504
505     self->op      = op;
506     self->operand = expr;
507
508
509     if (ast_istype(expr, ast_unary) && OPTS_OPTIMIZATION(OPTIM_PEEPHOLE)) {
510         ast_unary *prev = (ast_unary*)((ast_unary*)expr)->operand;
511
512         /* Handle for double negation */
513         if (((ast_unary*)expr)->op == op)
514             prev = (ast_unary*)((ast_unary*)expr)->operand;
515
516         if (ast_istype(prev, ast_unary)) {
517             ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
518             mem_d(self);
519             ++opts_optimizationcount[OPTIM_PEEPHOLE];
520             return prev;
521         }
522     }
523
524     ast_propagate_effects(self, expr);
525
526     if ((op >= INSTR_NOT_F && op <= INSTR_NOT_FNC) || op == VINSTR_NEG_F) {
527         self->expression.vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
528     } else if (op == VINSTR_NEG_V) {
529         self->expression.vtype = TYPE_VECTOR;
530     } else {
531         compile_error(ctx, "cannot determine type of unary operation %s", util_instr_str[op]);
532     }
533
534     return self;
535 }
536
537 void ast_unary_delete(ast_unary *self)
538 {
539     if (self->operand) ast_unref(self->operand);
540     ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
541     mem_d(self);
542 }
543
544 ast_return* ast_return_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *expr)
545 {
546     ast_instantiate(ast_return, ctx, ast_return_delete);
547     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_return_codegen);
548
549     self->operand = expr;
550
551     if (expr)
552         ast_propagate_effects(self, expr);
553
554     return self;
555 }
556
557 void ast_return_delete(ast_return *self)
558 {
559     if (self->operand)
560         ast_unref(self->operand);
561     ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
562     mem_d(self);
563 }
564
565 ast_entfield* ast_entfield_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *entity, ast_expression *field)
566 {
567     if (field->vtype != TYPE_FIELD) {
568         compile_error(ctx, "ast_entfield_new with expression not of type field");
569         return nullptr;
570     }
571     return ast_entfield_new_force(ctx, entity, field, field->next);
572 }
573
574 ast_entfield* ast_entfield_new_force(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *entity, ast_expression *field, const ast_expression *outtype)
575 {
576     ast_instantiate(ast_entfield, ctx, ast_entfield_delete);
577
578     if (!outtype) {
579         mem_d(self);
580         /* Error: field has no type... */
581         return nullptr;
582     }
583
584     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_entfield_codegen);
585
586     self->entity = entity;
587     self->field  = field;
588     ast_propagate_effects(self, entity);
589     ast_propagate_effects(self, field);
590
591     ast_type_adopt(self, outtype);
592     return self;
593 }
594
595 void ast_entfield_delete(ast_entfield *self)
596 {
597     ast_unref(self->entity);
598     ast_unref(self->field);
599     ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
600     mem_d(self);
601 }
602
603 ast_member* ast_member_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *owner, unsigned int field, const char *name)
604 {
605     ast_instantiate(ast_member, ctx, ast_member_delete);
606     if (field >= 3) {
607         mem_d(self);
608         return nullptr;
609     }
610
611     if (owner->vtype != TYPE_VECTOR &&
612         owner->vtype != TYPE_FIELD) {
613         compile_error(ctx, "member-access on an invalid owner of type %s", type_name[owner->vtype]);
614         mem_d(self);
615         return nullptr;
616     }
617
618     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_member_codegen);
619     self->expression.node.keep = true; /* keep */
620
621     if (owner->vtype == TYPE_VECTOR) {
622         self->expression.vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
623         self->expression.next  = nullptr;
624     } else {
625         self->expression.vtype = TYPE_FIELD;
626         self->expression.next = ast_shallow_type(ctx, TYPE_FLOAT);
627     }
628
629     self->rvalue = false;
630     self->owner  = owner;
631     ast_propagate_effects(self, owner);
632
633     self->field = field;
634     if (name)
635         self->name = util_strdup(name);
636     else
637         self->name = nullptr;
638
639     return self;
640 }
641
642 void ast_member_delete(ast_member *self)
643 {
644     /* The owner is always an ast_value, which has .keep=true,
645      * also: ast_members are usually deleted after the owner, thus
646      * this will cause invalid access
647     ast_unref(self->owner);
648      * once we allow (expression).x to access a vector-member, we need
649      * to change this: preferably by creating an alternate ast node for this
650      * purpose that is not garbage-collected.
651     */
652     ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
653     mem_d(self->name);
654     mem_d(self);
655 }
656
657 bool ast_member_set_name(ast_member *self, const char *name)
658 {
659     if (self->name)
660         mem_d((void*)self->name);
661     self->name = util_strdup(name);
662     return !!self->name;
663 }
664
665 ast_array_index* ast_array_index_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *array, ast_expression *index)
666 {
667     ast_expression *outtype;
668     ast_instantiate(ast_array_index, ctx, ast_array_index_delete);
669
670     outtype = array->next;
671     if (!outtype) {
672         mem_d(self);
673         /* Error: field has no type... */
674         return nullptr;
675     }
676
677     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_array_index_codegen);
678
679     self->array = array;
680     self->index = index;
681     ast_propagate_effects(self, array);
682     ast_propagate_effects(self, index);
683
684     ast_type_adopt(self, outtype);
685     if (array->vtype == TYPE_FIELD && outtype->vtype == TYPE_ARRAY) {
686         if (self->expression.vtype != TYPE_ARRAY) {
687             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "array_index node on type");
688             ast_array_index_delete(self);
689             return nullptr;
690         }
691         self->array = outtype;
692         self->expression.vtype = TYPE_FIELD;
693     }
694
695     return self;
696 }
697
698 void ast_array_index_delete(ast_array_index *self)
699 {
700     if (self->array)
701         ast_unref(self->array);
702     if (self->index)
703         ast_unref(self->index);
704     ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
705     mem_d(self);
706 }
707
708 ast_argpipe* ast_argpipe_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *index)
709 {
710     ast_instantiate(ast_argpipe, ctx, ast_argpipe_delete);
711     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_argpipe_codegen);
712     self->index = index;
713     self->expression.vtype = TYPE_NOEXPR;
714     return self;
715 }
716
717 void ast_argpipe_delete(ast_argpipe *self)
718 {
719     if (self->index)
720         ast_unref(self->index);
721     ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
722     mem_d(self);
723 }
724
725 ast_ifthen* ast_ifthen_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *cond, ast_expression *ontrue, ast_expression *onfalse)
726 {
727     ast_instantiate(ast_ifthen, ctx, ast_ifthen_delete);
728     if (!ontrue && !onfalse) {
729         /* because it is invalid */
730         mem_d(self);
731         return nullptr;
732     }
733     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_ifthen_codegen);
734
735     self->cond     = cond;
736     self->on_true  = ontrue;
737     self->on_false = onfalse;
738     ast_propagate_effects(self, cond);
739     if (ontrue)
740         ast_propagate_effects(self, ontrue);
741     if (onfalse)
742         ast_propagate_effects(self, onfalse);
743
744     return self;
745 }
746
747 void ast_ifthen_delete(ast_ifthen *self)
748 {
749     ast_unref(self->cond);
750     if (self->on_true)
751         ast_unref(self->on_true);
752     if (self->on_false)
753         ast_unref(self->on_false);
754     ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
755     mem_d(self);
756 }
757
758 ast_ternary* ast_ternary_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *cond, ast_expression *ontrue, ast_expression *onfalse)
759 {
760     ast_expression *exprtype = ontrue;
761     ast_instantiate(ast_ternary, ctx, ast_ternary_delete);
762     /* This time NEITHER must be nullptr */
763     if (!ontrue || !onfalse) {
764         mem_d(self);
765         return nullptr;
766     }
767     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_ternary_codegen);
768
769     self->cond     = cond;
770     self->on_true  = ontrue;
771     self->on_false = onfalse;
772     ast_propagate_effects(self, cond);
773     ast_propagate_effects(self, ontrue);
774     ast_propagate_effects(self, onfalse);
775
776     if (ontrue->vtype == TYPE_NIL)
777         exprtype = onfalse;
778     ast_type_adopt(self, exprtype);
779
780     return self;
781 }
782
783 void ast_ternary_delete(ast_ternary *self)
784 {
785     /* the if()s are only there because computed-gotos can set them
786      * to nullptr
787      */
788     if (self->cond)     ast_unref(self->cond);
789     if (self->on_true)  ast_unref(self->on_true);
790     if (self->on_false) ast_unref(self->on_false);
791     ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
792     mem_d(self);
793 }
794
795 ast_loop* ast_loop_new(lex_ctx_t ctx,
796                        ast_expression *initexpr,
797                        ast_expression *precond, bool pre_not,
798                        ast_expression *postcond, bool post_not,
799                        ast_expression *increment,
800                        ast_expression *body)
801 {
802     ast_instantiate(ast_loop, ctx, ast_loop_delete);
803     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_loop_codegen);
804
805     self->initexpr  = initexpr;
806     self->precond   = precond;
807     self->postcond  = postcond;
808     self->increment = increment;
809     self->body      = body;
810
811     self->pre_not   = pre_not;
812     self->post_not  = post_not;
813
814     if (initexpr)
815         ast_propagate_effects(self, initexpr);
816     if (precond)
817         ast_propagate_effects(self, precond);
818     if (postcond)
819         ast_propagate_effects(self, postcond);
820     if (increment)
821         ast_propagate_effects(self, increment);
822     if (body)
823         ast_propagate_effects(self, body);
824
825     return self;
826 }
827
828 void ast_loop_delete(ast_loop *self)
829 {
830     if (self->initexpr)
831         ast_unref(self->initexpr);
832     if (self->precond)
833         ast_unref(self->precond);
834     if (self->postcond)
835         ast_unref(self->postcond);
836     if (self->increment)
837         ast_unref(self->increment);
838     if (self->body)
839         ast_unref(self->body);
840     ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
841     mem_d(self);
842 }
843
844 ast_breakcont* ast_breakcont_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, bool iscont, unsigned int levels)
845 {
846     ast_instantiate(ast_breakcont, ctx, ast_breakcont_delete);
847     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_breakcont_codegen);
848
849     self->is_continue = iscont;
850     self->levels      = levels;
851
852     return self;
853 }
854
855 void ast_breakcont_delete(ast_breakcont *self)
856 {
857     ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
858     mem_d(self);
859 }
860
861 ast_switch* ast_switch_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *op)
862 {
863     ast_instantiate(ast_switch, ctx, ast_switch_delete);
864     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_switch_codegen);
865
866     self->operand = op;
867
868     ast_propagate_effects(self, op);
869
870     return self;
871 }
872
873 void ast_switch_delete(ast_switch *self)
874 {
875     ast_unref(self->operand);
876
877     for (auto &it : self->cases) {
878         if (it.value)
879             ast_unref(it.value);
880         ast_unref(it.code);
881     }
882
883     ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
884     mem_d(self);
885 }
886
887 ast_label* ast_label_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, const char *name, bool undefined)
888 {
889     ast_instantiate(ast_label, ctx, ast_label_delete);
890     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_label_codegen);
891
892     self->expression.vtype = TYPE_NOEXPR;
893
894     self->name      = util_strdup(name);
895     self->irblock   = nullptr;
896     self->undefined = undefined;
897
898     return self;
899 }
900
901 void ast_label_delete(ast_label *self)
902 {
903     mem_d((void*)self->name);
904     ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
905     mem_d(self);
906 }
907
908 static void ast_label_register_goto(ast_label *self, ast_goto *g)
909 {
910    self->gotos.push_back(g);
911 }
912
913 ast_goto* ast_goto_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, const char *name)
914 {
915     ast_instantiate(ast_goto, ctx, ast_goto_delete);
916     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_goto_codegen);
917
918     self->name    = util_strdup(name);
919     self->target  = nullptr;
920     self->irblock_from = nullptr;
921
922     return self;
923 }
924
925 void ast_goto_delete(ast_goto *self)
926 {
927     mem_d((void*)self->name);
928     ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
929     mem_d(self);
930 }
931
932 void ast_goto_set_label(ast_goto *self, ast_label *label)
933 {
934     self->target = label;
935 }
936
937 ast_state* ast_state_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *frame, ast_expression *think)
938 {
939     ast_instantiate(ast_state, ctx, ast_state_delete);
940     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_state_codegen);
941     self->framenum  = frame;
942     self->nextthink = think;
943     return self;
944 }
945
946 void ast_state_delete(ast_state *self)
947 {
948     if (self->framenum)
949         ast_unref(self->framenum);
950     if (self->nextthink)
951         ast_unref(self->nextthink);
952
953     ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
954     mem_d(self);
955 }
956
957 ast_call* ast_call_new(lex_ctx_t ctx,
958                        ast_expression *funcexpr)
959 {
960     ast_instantiate(ast_call, ctx, ast_call_delete);
961     if (!funcexpr->next) {
962         compile_error(ctx, "not a function");
963         mem_d(self);
964         return nullptr;
965     }
966     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_call_codegen);
967
968     ast_side_effects(self) = true;
969
970     self->func     = funcexpr;
971     self->va_count = nullptr;
972
973     ast_type_adopt(self, funcexpr->next);
974
975     return self;
976 }
977
978 void ast_call_delete(ast_call *self)
979 {
980     for (auto &it : self->params)
981         ast_unref(it);
982
983     if (self->func)
984         ast_unref(self->func);
985
986     if (self->va_count)
987         ast_unref(self->va_count);
988
989     ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
990     mem_d(self);
991 }
992
993 static bool ast_call_check_vararg(ast_call *self, ast_expression *va_type, ast_expression *exp_type)
994 {
995     char texp[1024];
996     char tgot[1024];
997     if (!exp_type)
998         return true;
999     if (!va_type || !ast_compare_type(va_type, exp_type))
1000     {
1001         if (va_type && exp_type)
1002         {
1003             ast_type_to_string(va_type,  tgot, sizeof(tgot));
1004             ast_type_to_string(exp_type, texp, sizeof(texp));
1005             if (OPTS_FLAG(UNSAFE_VARARGS)) {
1006                 if (compile_warning(ast_ctx(self), WARN_UNSAFE_TYPES,
1007                                     "piped variadic argument differs in type: constrained to type %s, expected type %s",
1008                                     tgot, texp))
1009                     return false;
1010             } else {
1011                 compile_error(ast_ctx(self),
1012                               "piped variadic argument differs in type: constrained to type %s, expected type %s",
1013                               tgot, texp);
1014                 return false;
1015             }
1016         }
1017         else
1018         {
1019             ast_type_to_string(exp_type, texp, sizeof(texp));
1020             if (OPTS_FLAG(UNSAFE_VARARGS)) {
1021                 if (compile_warning(ast_ctx(self), WARN_UNSAFE_TYPES,
1022                                     "piped variadic argument may differ in type: expected type %s",
1023                                     texp))
1024                     return false;
1025             } else {
1026                 compile_error(ast_ctx(self),
1027                               "piped variadic argument may differ in type: expected type %s",
1028                               texp);
1029                 return false;
1030             }
1031         }
1032     }
1033     return true;
1034 }
1035
1036 bool ast_call_check_types(ast_call *self, ast_expression *va_type)
1037 {
1038     char texp[1024];
1039     char tgot[1024];
1040     size_t i;
1041     bool retval = true;
1042     const ast_expression *func = self->func;
1043     size_t count = self->params.size();
1044     if (count > func->params.size())
1045         count = func->params.size();
1046
1047     for (i = 0; i < count; ++i) {
1048         if (ast_istype(self->params[i], ast_argpipe)) {
1049             /* warn about type safety instead */
1050             if (i+1 != count) {
1051                 compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "argpipe must be the last parameter to a function call");
1052                 return false;
1053             }
1054             if (!ast_call_check_vararg(self, va_type, (ast_expression*)func->params[i]))
1055                 retval = false;
1056         }
1057         else if (!ast_compare_type(self->params[i], (ast_expression*)(func->params[i])))
1058         {
1059             ast_type_to_string(self->params[i], tgot, sizeof(tgot));
1060             ast_type_to_string((ast_expression*)func->params[i], texp, sizeof(texp));
1061             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "invalid type for parameter %u in function call: expected %s, got %s",
1062                      (unsigned int)(i+1), texp, tgot);
1063             /* we don't immediately return */
1064             retval = false;
1065         }
1066     }
1067     count = self->params.size();
1068     if (count > func->params.size() && func->varparam) {
1069         for (; i < count; ++i) {
1070             if (ast_istype(self->params[i], ast_argpipe)) {
1071                 /* warn about type safety instead */
1072                 if (i+1 != count) {
1073                     compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "argpipe must be the last parameter to a function call");
1074                     return false;
1075                 }
1076                 if (!ast_call_check_vararg(self, va_type, func->varparam))
1077                     retval = false;
1078             }
1079             else if (!ast_compare_type(self->params[i], func->varparam))
1080             {
1081                 ast_type_to_string(self->params[i], tgot, sizeof(tgot));
1082                 ast_type_to_string(func->varparam, texp, sizeof(texp));
1083                 compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "invalid type for variadic parameter %u in function call: expected %s, got %s",
1084                          (unsigned int)(i+1), texp, tgot);
1085                 /* we don't immediately return */
1086                 retval = false;
1087             }
1088         }
1089     }
1090     return retval;
1091 }
1092
1093 ast_store* ast_store_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, int op,
1094                          ast_expression *dest, ast_expression *source)
1095 {
1096     ast_instantiate(ast_store, ctx, ast_store_delete);
1097     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_store_codegen);
1098
1099     ast_side_effects(self) = true;
1100
1101     self->op = op;
1102     self->dest = dest;
1103     self->source = source;
1104
1105     ast_type_adopt(self, dest);
1106
1107     return self;
1108 }
1109
1110 void ast_store_delete(ast_store *self)
1111 {
1112     ast_unref(self->dest);
1113     ast_unref(self->source);
1114     ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
1115     mem_d(self);
1116 }
1117
1118 ast_block* ast_block_new(lex_ctx_t ctx)
1119 {
1120     ast_instantiate(ast_block, ctx, ast_block_delete);
1121     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self,
1122                         (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_block_codegen);
1123     return self;
1124 }
1125
1126 bool ast_block_add_expr(ast_block *self, ast_expression *e)
1127 {
1128     ast_propagate_effects(self, e);
1129     self->exprs.push_back(e);
1130     if (self->expression.next) {
1131         ast_delete(self->expression.next);
1132         self->expression.next = nullptr;
1133     }
1134     ast_type_adopt(self, e);
1135     return true;
1136 }
1137
1138 void ast_block_collect(ast_block *self, ast_expression *expr)
1139 {
1140     self->collect.push_back(expr);
1141     expr->node.keep = true;
1142 }
1143
1144 void ast_block_delete(ast_block *self)
1145 {
1146     for (auto &it : self->exprs) ast_unref(it);
1147     for (auto &it : self->locals) ast_delete(it);
1148     for (auto &it : self->collect) ast_delete(it);
1149     ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
1150     mem_d(self);
1151 }
1152
1153 void ast_block_set_type(ast_block *self, ast_expression *from)
1154 {
1155     if (self->expression.next)
1156         ast_delete(self->expression.next);
1157     ast_type_adopt(self, from);
1158 }
1159
1160 ast_function* ast_function_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, const char *name, ast_value *vtype)
1161 {
1162     ast_instantiate(ast_function, ctx, ast_function_delete);
1163
1164     if (!vtype) {
1165         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_function_new condition 0");
1166         goto cleanup;
1167     } else if (vtype->hasvalue || vtype->expression.vtype != TYPE_FUNCTION) {
1168         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_function_new condition %i %i type=%i (probably 2 bodies?)",
1169                  (int)!vtype,
1170                  (int)vtype->hasvalue,
1171                  vtype->expression.vtype);
1172         goto cleanup;
1173     }
1174
1175     self->vtype  = vtype;
1176     self->name   = name ? util_strdup(name) : nullptr;
1177
1178     self->labelcount = 0;
1179     self->builtin = 0;
1180
1181     self->ir_func = nullptr;
1182     self->curblock = nullptr;
1183
1184     vtype->hasvalue = true;
1185     vtype->constval.vfunc = self;
1186
1187     self->varargs          = nullptr;
1188     self->argc             = nullptr;
1189     self->fixedparams      = nullptr;
1190     self->return_value     = nullptr;
1191     self->static_count     = 0;
1192
1193     return self;
1194
1195 cleanup:
1196     mem_d(self);
1197     return nullptr;
1198 }
1199
1200 void ast_function_delete(ast_function *self)
1201 {
1202     if (self->name)
1203         mem_d((void*)self->name);
1204     if (self->vtype) {
1205         /* ast_value_delete(self->vtype); */
1206         self->vtype->hasvalue = false;
1207         self->vtype->constval.vfunc = nullptr;
1208         /* We use unref - if it was stored in a global table it is supposed
1209          * to be deleted from *there*
1210          */
1211         ast_unref(self->vtype);
1212     }
1213     for (auto &it : self->static_names)
1214         mem_d(it);
1215     for (auto &it : self->blocks)
1216         ast_delete(it);
1217     if (self->varargs)
1218         ast_delete(self->varargs);
1219     if (self->argc)
1220         ast_delete(self->argc);
1221     if (self->fixedparams)
1222         ast_unref(self->fixedparams);
1223     if (self->return_value)
1224         ast_unref(self->return_value);
1225     mem_d(self);
1226 }
1227
1228 const char* ast_function_label(ast_function *self, const char *prefix)
1229 {
1230     size_t id;
1231     size_t len;
1232     char  *from;
1233
1234     if (!OPTS_OPTION_BOOL(OPTION_DUMP)    &&
1235         !OPTS_OPTION_BOOL(OPTION_DUMPFIN) &&
1236         !OPTS_OPTION_BOOL(OPTION_DEBUG))
1237     {
1238         return nullptr;
1239     }
1240
1241     id  = (self->labelcount++);
1242     len = strlen(prefix);
1243
1244     from = self->labelbuf + sizeof(self->labelbuf)-1;
1245     *from-- = 0;
1246     do {
1247         *from-- = (id%10) + '0';
1248         id /= 10;
1249     } while (id);
1250     ++from;
1251     memcpy(from - len, prefix, len);
1252     return from - len;
1253 }
1254
1255 /*********************************************************************/
1256 /* AST codegen part
1257  * by convention you must never pass nullptr to the 'ir_value **out'
1258  * parameter. If you really don't care about the output, pass a dummy.
1259  * But I can't imagine a pituation where the output is truly unnecessary.
1260  */
1261
1262 static void _ast_codegen_output_type(ast_expression *self, ir_value *out)
1263 {
1264     if (out->vtype == TYPE_FIELD)
1265         out->fieldtype = self->next->vtype;
1266     if (out->vtype == TYPE_FUNCTION)
1267         out->outtype = self->next->vtype;
1268 }
1269
1270 #define codegen_output_type(a,o) (_ast_codegen_output_type(&((a)->expression),(o)))
1271
1272 bool ast_value_codegen(ast_value *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
1273 {
1274     (void)func;
1275     (void)lvalue;
1276     if (self->expression.vtype == TYPE_NIL) {
1277         *out = func->ir_func->owner->nil;
1278         return true;
1279     }
1280     /* NOTE: This is the codegen for a variable used in an expression.
1281      * It is not the codegen to generate the value. For this purpose,
1282      * ast_local_codegen and ast_global_codegen are to be used before this
1283      * is executed. ast_function_codegen should take care of its locals,
1284      * and the ast-user should take care of ast_global_codegen to be used
1285      * on all the globals.
1286      */
1287     if (!self->ir_v) {
1288         char tname[1024]; /* typename is reserved in C++ */
1289         ast_type_to_string((ast_expression*)self, tname, sizeof(tname));
1290         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "ast_value used before generated %s %s", tname, self->name);
1291         return false;
1292     }
1293     *out = self->ir_v;
1294     return true;
1295 }
1296
1297 static bool ast_global_array_set(ast_value *self)
1298 {
1299     size_t count = self->initlist.size();
1300     size_t i;
1301
1302     if (count > self->expression.count) {
1303         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "too many elements in initializer");
1304         count = self->expression.count;
1305     }
1306     else if (count < self->expression.count) {
1307         /* add this?
1308         compile_warning(ast_ctx(self), "not all elements are initialized");
1309         */
1310     }
1311
1312     for (i = 0; i != count; ++i) {
1313         switch (self->expression.next->vtype) {
1314             case TYPE_FLOAT:
1315                 if (!ir_value_set_float(self->ir_values[i], self->initlist[i].vfloat))
1316                     return false;
1317                 break;
1318             case TYPE_VECTOR:
1319                 if (!ir_value_set_vector(self->ir_values[i], self->initlist[i].vvec))
1320                     return false;
1321                 break;
1322             case TYPE_STRING:
1323                 if (!ir_value_set_string(self->ir_values[i], self->initlist[i].vstring))
1324                     return false;
1325                 break;
1326             case TYPE_ARRAY:
1327                 /* we don't support them in any other place yet either */
1328                 compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "TODO: nested arrays");
1329                 return false;
1330             case TYPE_FUNCTION:
1331                 /* this requiers a bit more work - similar to the fields I suppose */
1332                 compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "global of type function not properly generated");
1333                 return false;
1334             case TYPE_FIELD:
1335                 if (!self->initlist[i].vfield) {
1336                     compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "field constant without vfield set");
1337                     return false;
1338                 }
1339                 if (!self->initlist[i].vfield->ir_v) {
1340                     compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "field constant generated before its field");
1341                     return false;
1342                 }
1343                 if (!ir_value_set_field(self->ir_values[i], self->initlist[i].vfield->ir_v))
1344                     return false;
1345                 break;
1346             default:
1347                 compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "TODO: global constant type %i", self->expression.vtype);
1348                 break;
1349         }
1350     }
1351     return true;
1352 }
1353
1354 static bool check_array(ast_value *self, ast_value *array)
1355 {
1356     if (array->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_ARRAY_INIT && array->initlist.empty()) {
1357         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "array without size: %s", self->name);
1358         return false;
1359     }
1360     /* we are lame now - considering the way QC works we won't tolerate arrays > 1024 elements */
1361     if (!array->expression.count || array->expression.count > OPTS_OPTION_U32(OPTION_MAX_ARRAY_SIZE)) {
1362         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "Invalid array of size %lu", (unsigned long)array->expression.count);
1363         return false;
1364     }
1365     return true;
1366 }
1367
1368 bool ast_global_codegen(ast_value *self, ir_builder *ir, bool isfield)
1369 {
1370     ir_value *v = nullptr;
1371
1372     if (self->expression.vtype == TYPE_NIL) {
1373         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: trying to generate a variable of TYPE_NIL");
1374         return false;
1375     }
1376
1377     if (self->hasvalue && self->expression.vtype == TYPE_FUNCTION)
1378     {
1379         ir_function *func = ir_builder_create_function(ir, self->name, self->expression.next->vtype);
1380         if (!func)
1381             return false;
1382         func->context = ast_ctx(self);
1383         func->value->context = ast_ctx(self);
1384
1385         self->constval.vfunc->ir_func = func;
1386         self->ir_v = func->value;
1387         if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
1388             self->ir_v->flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
1389         if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_ERASEABLE)
1390             self->ir_v->flags |= IR_FLAG_ERASABLE;
1391         if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_BLOCK_COVERAGE)
1392             func->flags |= IR_FLAG_BLOCK_COVERAGE;
1393         /* The function is filled later on ast_function_codegen... */
1394         return true;
1395     }
1396
1397     if (isfield && self->expression.vtype == TYPE_FIELD) {
1398         ast_expression *fieldtype = self->expression.next;
1399
1400         if (self->hasvalue) {
1401             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "TODO: constant field pointers with value");
1402             goto error;
1403         }
1404
1405         if (fieldtype->vtype == TYPE_ARRAY) {
1406             size_t ai;
1407             char   *name;
1408             size_t  namelen;
1409
1410             ast_expression *elemtype;
1411             int             vtype;
1412             ast_value      *array = (ast_value*)fieldtype;
1413
1414             if (!ast_istype(fieldtype, ast_value)) {
1415                 compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_value required");
1416                 return false;
1417             }
1418
1419             if (!check_array(self, array))
1420                 return false;
1421
1422             elemtype = array->expression.next;
1423             vtype = elemtype->vtype;
1424
1425             v = ir_builder_create_field(ir, self->name, vtype);
1426             if (!v) {
1427                 compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "ir_builder_create_global failed on `%s`", self->name);
1428                 return false;
1429             }
1430             v->context = ast_ctx(self);
1431             v->unique_life = true;
1432             v->locked      = true;
1433             array->ir_v = self->ir_v = v;
1434
1435             if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
1436                 self->ir_v->flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
1437             if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_ERASEABLE)
1438                 self->ir_v->flags |= IR_FLAG_ERASABLE;
1439
1440             namelen = strlen(self->name);
1441             name    = (char*)mem_a(namelen + 16);
1442             util_strncpy(name, self->name, namelen);
1443
1444             array->ir_values = (ir_value**)mem_a(sizeof(array->ir_values[0]) * array->expression.count);
1445             array->ir_values[0] = v;
1446             for (ai = 1; ai < array->expression.count; ++ai) {
1447                 util_snprintf(name + namelen, 16, "[%u]", (unsigned int)ai);
1448                 array->ir_values[ai] = ir_builder_create_field(ir, name, vtype);
1449                 if (!array->ir_values[ai]) {
1450                     mem_d(name);
1451                     compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "ir_builder_create_global failed on `%s`", name);
1452                     return false;
1453                 }
1454                 array->ir_values[ai]->context = ast_ctx(self);
1455                 array->ir_values[ai]->unique_life = true;
1456                 array->ir_values[ai]->locked      = true;
1457                 if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
1458                     self->ir_values[ai]->flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
1459             }
1460             mem_d(name);
1461         }
1462         else
1463         {
1464             v = ir_builder_create_field(ir, self->name, self->expression.next->vtype);
1465             if (!v)
1466                 return false;
1467             v->context = ast_ctx(self);
1468             self->ir_v = v;
1469             if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
1470                 self->ir_v->flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
1471
1472             if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_ERASEABLE)
1473                 self->ir_v->flags |= IR_FLAG_ERASABLE;
1474         }
1475         return true;
1476     }
1477
1478     if (self->expression.vtype == TYPE_ARRAY) {
1479         size_t ai;
1480         char   *name;
1481         size_t  namelen;
1482
1483         ast_expression *elemtype = self->expression.next;
1484         int vtype = elemtype->vtype;
1485
1486         if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_ARRAY_INIT && !self->expression.count) {
1487             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "array `%s' has no size", self->name);
1488             return false;
1489         }
1490
1491         /* same as with field arrays */
1492         if (!check_array(self, self))
1493             return false;
1494
1495         v = ir_builder_create_global(ir, self->name, vtype);
1496         if (!v) {
1497             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "ir_builder_create_global failed `%s`", self->name);
1498             return false;
1499         }
1500         v->context = ast_ctx(self);
1501         v->unique_life = true;
1502         v->locked      = true;
1503
1504         if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
1505             v->flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
1506         if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_ERASEABLE)
1507             self->ir_v->flags |= IR_FLAG_ERASABLE;
1508
1509         namelen = strlen(self->name);
1510         name    = (char*)mem_a(namelen + 16);
1511         util_strncpy(name, self->name, namelen);
1512
1513         self->ir_values = (ir_value**)mem_a(sizeof(self->ir_values[0]) * self->expression.count);
1514         self->ir_values[0] = v;
1515         for (ai = 1; ai < self->expression.count; ++ai) {
1516             util_snprintf(name + namelen, 16, "[%u]", (unsigned int)ai);
1517             self->ir_values[ai] = ir_builder_create_global(ir, name, vtype);
1518             if (!self->ir_values[ai]) {
1519                 mem_d(name);
1520                 compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "ir_builder_create_global failed `%s`", name);
1521                 return false;
1522             }
1523             self->ir_values[ai]->context = ast_ctx(self);
1524             self->ir_values[ai]->unique_life = true;
1525             self->ir_values[ai]->locked      = true;
1526             if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
1527                 self->ir_values[ai]->flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
1528         }
1529         mem_d(name);
1530     }
1531     else
1532     {
1533         /* Arrays don't do this since there's no "array" value which spans across the
1534          * whole thing.
1535          */
1536         v = ir_builder_create_global(ir, self->name, self->expression.vtype);
1537         if (!v) {
1538             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "ir_builder_create_global failed on `%s`", self->name);
1539             return false;
1540         }
1541         codegen_output_type(self, v);
1542         v->context = ast_ctx(self);
1543     }
1544
1545     /* link us to the ir_value */
1546     v->cvq = self->cvq;
1547     self->ir_v = v;
1548
1549     if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
1550         self->ir_v->flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
1551     if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_ERASEABLE)
1552         self->ir_v->flags |= IR_FLAG_ERASABLE;
1553
1554     /* initialize */
1555     if (self->hasvalue) {
1556         switch (self->expression.vtype)
1557         {
1558             case TYPE_FLOAT:
1559                 if (!ir_value_set_float(v, self->constval.vfloat))
1560                     goto error;
1561                 break;
1562             case TYPE_VECTOR:
1563                 if (!ir_value_set_vector(v, self->constval.vvec))
1564                     goto error;
1565                 break;
1566             case TYPE_STRING:
1567                 if (!ir_value_set_string(v, self->constval.vstring))
1568                     goto error;
1569                 break;
1570             case TYPE_ARRAY:
1571                 ast_global_array_set(self);
1572                 break;
1573             case TYPE_FUNCTION:
1574                 compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "global of type function not properly generated");
1575                 goto error;
1576                 /* Cannot generate an IR value for a function,
1577                  * need a pointer pointing to a function rather.
1578                  */
1579             case TYPE_FIELD:
1580                 if (!self->constval.vfield) {
1581                     compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "field constant without vfield set");
1582                     goto error;
1583                 }
1584                 if (!self->constval.vfield->ir_v) {
1585                     compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "field constant generated before its field");
1586                     goto error;
1587                 }
1588                 if (!ir_value_set_field(v, self->constval.vfield->ir_v))
1589                     goto error;
1590                 break;
1591             default:
1592                 compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "TODO: global constant type %i", self->expression.vtype);
1593                 break;
1594         }
1595     }
1596     return true;
1597
1598 error: /* clean up */
1599     if(v) ir_value_delete(v);
1600     return false;
1601 }
1602
1603 static bool ast_local_codegen(ast_value *self, ir_function *func, bool param)
1604 {
1605     ir_value *v = nullptr;
1606
1607     if (self->expression.vtype == TYPE_NIL) {
1608         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: trying to generate a variable of TYPE_NIL");
1609         return false;
1610     }
1611
1612     if (self->hasvalue && self->expression.vtype == TYPE_FUNCTION)
1613     {
1614         /* Do we allow local functions? I think not...
1615          * this is NOT a function pointer atm.
1616          */
1617         return false;
1618     }
1619
1620     if (self->expression.vtype == TYPE_ARRAY) {
1621         size_t ai;
1622         char   *name;
1623         size_t  namelen;
1624
1625         ast_expression *elemtype = self->expression.next;
1626         int vtype = elemtype->vtype;
1627
1628         func->flags |= IR_FLAG_HAS_ARRAYS;
1629
1630         if (param && !(self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_IS_VARARG)) {
1631             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "array-parameters are not supported");
1632             return false;
1633         }
1634
1635         /* we are lame now - considering the way QC works we won't tolerate arrays > 1024 elements */
1636         if (!check_array(self, self))
1637             return false;
1638
1639         self->ir_values = (ir_value**)mem_a(sizeof(self->ir_values[0]) * self->expression.count);
1640         if (!self->ir_values) {
1641             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "failed to allocate array values");
1642             return false;
1643         }
1644
1645         v = ir_function_create_local(func, self->name, vtype, param);
1646         if (!v) {
1647             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ir_function_create_local failed");
1648             return false;
1649         }
1650         v->context = ast_ctx(self);
1651         v->unique_life = true;
1652         v->locked      = true;
1653
1654         namelen = strlen(self->name);
1655         name    = (char*)mem_a(namelen + 16);
1656         util_strncpy(name, self->name, namelen);
1657
1658         self->ir_values[0] = v;
1659         for (ai = 1; ai < self->expression.count; ++ai) {
1660             util_snprintf(name + namelen, 16, "[%u]", (unsigned int)ai);
1661             self->ir_values[ai] = ir_function_create_local(func, name, vtype, param);
1662             if (!self->ir_values[ai]) {
1663                 compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal_error: ir_builder_create_global failed on `%s`", name);
1664                 return false;
1665             }
1666             self->ir_values[ai]->context = ast_ctx(self);
1667             self->ir_values[ai]->unique_life = true;
1668             self->ir_values[ai]->locked      = true;
1669         }
1670         mem_d(name);
1671     }
1672     else
1673     {
1674         v = ir_function_create_local(func, self->name, self->expression.vtype, param);
1675         if (!v)
1676             return false;
1677         codegen_output_type(self, v);
1678         v->context = ast_ctx(self);
1679     }
1680
1681     /* A constant local... hmmm...
1682      * I suppose the IR will have to deal with this
1683      */
1684     if (self->hasvalue) {
1685         switch (self->expression.vtype)
1686         {
1687             case TYPE_FLOAT:
1688                 if (!ir_value_set_float(v, self->constval.vfloat))
1689                     goto error;
1690                 break;
1691             case TYPE_VECTOR:
1692                 if (!ir_value_set_vector(v, self->constval.vvec))
1693                     goto error;
1694                 break;
1695             case TYPE_STRING:
1696                 if (!ir_value_set_string(v, self->constval.vstring))
1697                     goto error;
1698                 break;
1699             default:
1700                 compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "TODO: global constant type %i", self->expression.vtype);
1701                 break;
1702         }
1703     }
1704
1705     /* link us to the ir_value */
1706     v->cvq = self->cvq;
1707     self->ir_v = v;
1708
1709     if (!ast_generate_accessors(self, func->owner))
1710         return false;
1711     return true;
1712
1713 error: /* clean up */
1714     ir_value_delete(v);
1715     return false;
1716 }
1717
1718 bool ast_generate_accessors(ast_value *self, ir_builder *ir)
1719 {
1720     size_t i;
1721     bool warn = OPTS_WARN(WARN_USED_UNINITIALIZED);
1722     if (!self->setter || !self->getter)
1723         return true;
1724     for (i = 0; i < self->expression.count; ++i) {
1725         if (!self->ir_values) {
1726             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: no array values generated for `%s`", self->name);
1727             return false;
1728         }
1729         if (!self->ir_values[i]) {
1730             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: not all array values have been generated for `%s`", self->name);
1731             return false;
1732         }
1733         if (self->ir_values[i]->life) {
1734             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: function containing `%s` already generated", self->name);
1735             return false;
1736         }
1737     }
1738
1739     opts_set(opts.warn, WARN_USED_UNINITIALIZED, false);
1740     if (self->setter) {
1741         if (!ast_global_codegen  (self->setter, ir, false) ||
1742             !ast_function_codegen(self->setter->constval.vfunc, ir) ||
1743             !ir_function_finalize(self->setter->constval.vfunc->ir_func))
1744         {
1745             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: failed to generate setter for `%s`", self->name);
1746             opts_set(opts.warn, WARN_USED_UNINITIALIZED, warn);
1747             return false;
1748         }
1749     }
1750     if (self->getter) {
1751         if (!ast_global_codegen  (self->getter, ir, false) ||
1752             !ast_function_codegen(self->getter->constval.vfunc, ir) ||
1753             !ir_function_finalize(self->getter->constval.vfunc->ir_func))
1754         {
1755             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: failed to generate getter for `%s`", self->name);
1756             opts_set(opts.warn, WARN_USED_UNINITIALIZED, warn);
1757             return false;
1758         }
1759     }
1760     for (i = 0; i < self->expression.count; ++i) {
1761         vec_free(self->ir_values[i]->life);
1762     }
1763     opts_set(opts.warn, WARN_USED_UNINITIALIZED, warn);
1764     return true;
1765 }
1766
1767 bool ast_function_codegen(ast_function *self, ir_builder *ir)
1768 {
1769     ir_function *irf;
1770     ir_value    *dummy;
1771     ast_expression         *ec;
1772     ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
1773
1774     (void)ir;
1775
1776     irf = self->ir_func;
1777     if (!irf) {
1778         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_function's related ast_value was not generated yet");
1779         return false;
1780     }
1781
1782     /* fill the parameter list */
1783     ec = &self->vtype->expression;
1784     for (auto &it : ec->params) {
1785         if (it->expression.vtype == TYPE_FIELD)
1786             vec_push(irf->params, it->expression.next->vtype);
1787         else
1788             vec_push(irf->params, it->expression.vtype);
1789         if (!self->builtin) {
1790             if (!ast_local_codegen(it, self->ir_func, true))
1791                 return false;
1792         }
1793     }
1794
1795     if (self->varargs) {
1796         if (!ast_local_codegen(self->varargs, self->ir_func, true))
1797             return false;
1798         irf->max_varargs = self->varargs->expression.count;
1799     }
1800
1801     if (self->builtin) {
1802         irf->builtin = self->builtin;
1803         return true;
1804     }
1805
1806     /* have a local return value variable? */
1807     if (self->return_value) {
1808         if (!ast_local_codegen(self->return_value, self->ir_func, false))
1809             return false;
1810     }
1811
1812     if (self->blocks.empty()) {
1813         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "function `%s` has no body", self->name);
1814         return false;
1815     }
1816
1817     irf->first = self->curblock = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), irf, "entry");
1818     if (!self->curblock) {
1819         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "failed to allocate entry block for `%s`", self->name);
1820         return false;
1821     }
1822
1823     if (self->argc) {
1824         ir_value *va_count;
1825         ir_value *fixed;
1826         ir_value *sub;
1827         if (!ast_local_codegen(self->argc, self->ir_func, true))
1828             return false;
1829         cgen = self->argc->expression.codegen;
1830         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->argc), self, false, &va_count))
1831             return false;
1832         cgen = self->fixedparams->expression.codegen;
1833         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->fixedparams), self, false, &fixed))
1834             return false;
1835         sub = ir_block_create_binop(self->curblock, ast_ctx(self),
1836                                     ast_function_label(self, "va_count"), INSTR_SUB_F,
1837                                     ir_builder_get_va_count(ir), fixed);
1838         if (!sub)
1839             return false;
1840         if (!ir_block_create_store_op(self->curblock, ast_ctx(self), INSTR_STORE_F,
1841                                       va_count, sub))
1842         {
1843             return false;
1844         }
1845     }
1846
1847     for (auto &it : self->blocks) {
1848         cgen = it->expression.codegen;
1849         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)it, self, false, &dummy))
1850             return false;
1851     }
1852
1853     /* TODO: check return types */
1854     if (!self->curblock->final)
1855     {
1856         if (!self->vtype->expression.next ||
1857             self->vtype->expression.next->vtype == TYPE_VOID)
1858         {
1859             return ir_block_create_return(self->curblock, ast_ctx(self), nullptr);
1860         }
1861         else if (vec_size(self->curblock->entries) || self->curblock == irf->first)
1862         {
1863             if (self->return_value) {
1864                 cgen = self->return_value->expression.codegen;
1865                 if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->return_value), self, false, &dummy))
1866                     return false;
1867                 return ir_block_create_return(self->curblock, ast_ctx(self), dummy);
1868             }
1869             else if (compile_warning(ast_ctx(self), WARN_MISSING_RETURN_VALUES,
1870                                 "control reaches end of non-void function (`%s`) via %s",
1871                                 self->name, self->curblock->label))
1872             {
1873                 return false;
1874             }
1875             return ir_block_create_return(self->curblock, ast_ctx(self), nullptr);
1876         }
1877     }
1878     return true;
1879 }
1880
1881 static bool starts_a_label(ast_expression *ex)
1882 {
1883     while (ex && ast_istype(ex, ast_block)) {
1884         ast_block *b = (ast_block*)ex;
1885         ex = b->exprs[0];
1886     }
1887     if (!ex)
1888         return false;
1889     return ast_istype(ex, ast_label);
1890 }
1891
1892 /* Note, you will not see ast_block_codegen generate ir_blocks.
1893  * To the AST and the IR, blocks are 2 different things.
1894  * In the AST it represents a block of code, usually enclosed in
1895  * curly braces {...}.
1896  * While in the IR it represents a block in terms of control-flow.
1897  */
1898 bool ast_block_codegen(ast_block *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
1899 {
1900     /* We don't use this
1901      * Note: an ast-representation using the comma-operator
1902      * of the form: (a, b, c) = x should not assign to c...
1903      */
1904     if (lvalue) {
1905         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "not an l-value (code-block)");
1906         return false;
1907     }
1908
1909     if (self->expression.outr) {
1910         *out = self->expression.outr;
1911         return true;
1912     }
1913
1914     /* output is nullptr at first, we'll have each expression
1915      * assign to out output, thus, a comma-operator represention
1916      * using an ast_block will return the last generated value,
1917      * so: (b, c) + a  executed both b and c, and returns c,
1918      * which is then added to a.
1919      */
1920     *out = nullptr;
1921
1922     /* generate locals */
1923     for (auto &it : self->locals) {
1924         if (!ast_local_codegen(it, func->ir_func, false)) {
1925             if (OPTS_OPTION_BOOL(OPTION_DEBUG))
1926                 compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "failed to generate local `%s`", it->name);
1927             return false;
1928         }
1929     }
1930
1931     for (auto &it : self->exprs) {
1932         ast_expression_codegen *gen;
1933         if (func->curblock->final && !starts_a_label(it)) {
1934             if (compile_warning(ast_ctx(it), WARN_UNREACHABLE_CODE, "unreachable statement"))
1935                 return false;
1936             continue;
1937         }
1938         gen = it->codegen;
1939         if (!(*gen)(it, func, false, out))
1940             return false;
1941     }
1942
1943     self->expression.outr = *out;
1944
1945     return true;
1946 }
1947
1948 bool ast_store_codegen(ast_store *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
1949 {
1950     ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
1951     ir_value *left  = nullptr;
1952     ir_value *right = nullptr;
1953
1954     ast_value       *arr;
1955     ast_value       *idx = 0;
1956     ast_array_index *ai = nullptr;
1957
1958     if (lvalue && self->expression.outl) {
1959         *out = self->expression.outl;
1960         return true;
1961     }
1962
1963     if (!lvalue && self->expression.outr) {
1964         *out = self->expression.outr;
1965         return true;
1966     }
1967
1968     if (ast_istype(self->dest, ast_array_index))
1969     {
1970
1971         ai = (ast_array_index*)self->dest;
1972         idx = (ast_value*)ai->index;
1973
1974         if (ast_istype(ai->index, ast_value) && idx->hasvalue && idx->cvq == CV_CONST)
1975             ai = nullptr;
1976     }
1977
1978     if (ai) {
1979         /* we need to call the setter */
1980         ir_value  *iridx, *funval;
1981         ir_instr  *call;
1982
1983         if (lvalue) {
1984             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "array-subscript assignment cannot produce lvalues");
1985             return false;
1986         }
1987
1988         arr = (ast_value*)ai->array;
1989         if (!ast_istype(ai->array, ast_value) || !arr->setter) {
1990             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "value has no setter (%s)", arr->name);
1991             return false;
1992         }
1993
1994         cgen = idx->expression.codegen;
1995         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(idx), func, false, &iridx))
1996             return false;
1997
1998         cgen = arr->setter->expression.codegen;
1999         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(arr->setter), func, true, &funval))
2000             return false;
2001
2002         cgen = self->source->codegen;
2003         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->source), func, false, &right))
2004             return false;
2005
2006         call = ir_block_create_call(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), ast_function_label(func, "store"), funval, false);
2007         if (!call)
2008             return false;
2009         ir_call_param(call, iridx);
2010         ir_call_param(call, right);
2011         self->expression.outr = right;
2012     }
2013     else
2014     {
2015         /* regular code */
2016
2017         cgen = self->dest->codegen;
2018         /* lvalue! */
2019         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->dest), func, true, &left))
2020             return false;
2021         self->expression.outl = left;
2022
2023         cgen = self->source->codegen;
2024         /* rvalue! */
2025         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->source), func, false, &right))
2026             return false;
2027
2028         if (!ir_block_create_store_op(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), self->op, left, right))
2029             return false;
2030         self->expression.outr = right;
2031     }
2032
2033     /* Theoretically, an assinment returns its left side as an
2034      * lvalue, if we don't need an lvalue though, we return
2035      * the right side as an rvalue, otherwise we have to
2036      * somehow know whether or not we need to dereference the pointer
2037      * on the left side - that is: OP_LOAD if it was an address.
2038      * Also: in original QC we cannot OP_LOADP *anyway*.
2039      */
2040     *out = (lvalue ? left : right);
2041
2042     return true;
2043 }
2044
2045 bool ast_binary_codegen(ast_binary *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
2046 {
2047     ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
2048     ir_value *left, *right;
2049
2050     /* A binary operation cannot yield an l-value */
2051     if (lvalue) {
2052         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "not an l-value (binop)");
2053         return false;
2054     }
2055
2056     if (self->expression.outr) {
2057         *out = self->expression.outr;
2058         return true;
2059     }
2060
2061     if ((OPTS_FLAG(SHORT_LOGIC) || OPTS_FLAG(PERL_LOGIC)) &&
2062         (self->op == INSTR_AND || self->op == INSTR_OR))
2063     {
2064         /* NOTE: The short-logic path will ignore right_first */
2065
2066         /* short circuit evaluation */
2067         ir_block *other, *merge;
2068         ir_block *from_left, *from_right;
2069         ir_instr *phi;
2070         size_t    merge_id;
2071
2072         /* prepare end-block */
2073         merge_id = vec_size(func->ir_func->blocks);
2074         merge    = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "sce_merge"));
2075
2076         /* generate the left expression */
2077         cgen = self->left->codegen;
2078         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->left), func, false, &left))
2079             return false;
2080         /* remember the block */
2081         from_left = func->curblock;
2082
2083         /* create a new block for the right expression */
2084         other = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "sce_other"));
2085         if (self->op == INSTR_AND) {
2086             /* on AND: left==true -> other */
2087             if (!ir_block_create_if(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), left, other, merge))
2088                 return false;
2089         } else {
2090             /* on OR: left==false -> other */
2091             if (!ir_block_create_if(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), left, merge, other))
2092                 return false;
2093         }
2094         /* use the likely flag */
2095         vec_last(func->curblock->instr)->likely = true;
2096
2097         /* enter the right-expression's block */
2098         func->curblock = other;
2099         /* generate */
2100         cgen = self->right->codegen;
2101         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->right), func, false, &right))
2102             return false;
2103         /* remember block */
2104         from_right = func->curblock;
2105
2106         /* jump to the merge block */
2107         if (!ir_block_create_jump(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), merge))
2108             return false;
2109
2110         vec_remove(func->ir_func->blocks, merge_id, 1);
2111         vec_push(func->ir_func->blocks, merge);
2112
2113         func->curblock = merge;
2114         phi = ir_block_create_phi(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self),
2115                                   ast_function_label(func, "sce_value"),
2116                                   self->expression.vtype);
2117         ir_phi_add(phi, from_left, left);
2118         ir_phi_add(phi, from_right, right);
2119         *out = ir_phi_value(phi);
2120         if (!*out)
2121             return false;
2122
2123         if (!OPTS_FLAG(PERL_LOGIC)) {
2124             /* cast-to-bool */
2125             if (OPTS_FLAG(CORRECT_LOGIC) && (*out)->vtype == TYPE_VECTOR) {
2126                 *out = ir_block_create_unary(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self),
2127                                              ast_function_label(func, "sce_bool_v"),
2128                                              INSTR_NOT_V, *out);
2129                 if (!*out)
2130                     return false;
2131                 *out = ir_block_create_unary(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self),
2132                                              ast_function_label(func, "sce_bool"),
2133                                              INSTR_NOT_F, *out);
2134                 if (!*out)
2135                     return false;
2136             }
2137             else if (OPTS_FLAG(FALSE_EMPTY_STRINGS) && (*out)->vtype == TYPE_STRING) {
2138                 *out = ir_block_create_unary(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self),
2139                                              ast_function_label(func, "sce_bool_s"),
2140                                              INSTR_NOT_S, *out);
2141                 if (!*out)
2142                     return false;
2143                 *out = ir_block_create_unary(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self),
2144                                              ast_function_label(func, "sce_bool"),
2145                                              INSTR_NOT_F, *out);
2146                 if (!*out)
2147                     return false;
2148             }
2149             else {
2150                 *out = ir_block_create_binop(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self),
2151                                              ast_function_label(func, "sce_bool"),
2152                                              INSTR_AND, *out, *out);
2153                 if (!*out)
2154                     return false;
2155             }
2156         }
2157
2158         self->expression.outr = *out;
2159         codegen_output_type(self, *out);
2160         return true;
2161     }
2162
2163     if (self->right_first) {
2164         cgen = self->right->codegen;
2165         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->right), func, false, &right))
2166             return false;
2167         cgen = self->left->codegen;
2168         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->left), func, false, &left))
2169             return false;
2170     } else {
2171         cgen = self->left->codegen;
2172         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->left), func, false, &left))
2173             return false;
2174         cgen = self->right->codegen;
2175         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->right), func, false, &right))
2176             return false;
2177     }
2178
2179     *out = ir_block_create_binop(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), ast_function_label(func, "bin"),
2180                                  self->op, left, right);
2181     if (!*out)
2182         return false;
2183     self->expression.outr = *out;
2184     codegen_output_type(self, *out);
2185
2186     return true;
2187 }
2188
2189 bool ast_binstore_codegen(ast_binstore *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
2190 {
2191     ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
2192     ir_value *leftl = nullptr, *leftr, *right, *bin;
2193
2194     ast_value       *arr;
2195     ast_value       *idx = 0;
2196     ast_array_index *ai = nullptr;
2197     ir_value        *iridx = nullptr;
2198
2199     if (lvalue && self->expression.outl) {
2200         *out = self->expression.outl;
2201         return true;
2202     }
2203
2204     if (!lvalue && self->expression.outr) {
2205         *out = self->expression.outr;
2206         return true;
2207     }
2208
2209     if (ast_istype(self->dest, ast_array_index))
2210     {
2211
2212         ai = (ast_array_index*)self->dest;
2213         idx = (ast_value*)ai->index;
2214
2215         if (ast_istype(ai->index, ast_value) && idx->hasvalue && idx->cvq == CV_CONST)
2216             ai = nullptr;
2217     }
2218
2219     /* for a binstore we need both an lvalue and an rvalue for the left side */
2220     /* rvalue of destination! */
2221     if (ai) {
2222         cgen = idx->expression.codegen;
2223         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(idx), func, false, &iridx))
2224             return false;
2225     }
2226     cgen = self->dest->codegen;
2227     if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->dest), func, false, &leftr))
2228         return false;
2229
2230     /* source as rvalue only */
2231     cgen = self->source->codegen;
2232     if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->source), func, false, &right))
2233         return false;
2234
2235     /* now the binary */
2236     bin = ir_block_create_binop(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), ast_function_label(func, "binst"),
2237                                 self->opbin, leftr, right);
2238     self->expression.outr = bin;
2239
2240
2241     if (ai) {
2242         /* we need to call the setter */
2243         ir_value  *funval;
2244         ir_instr  *call;
2245
2246         if (lvalue) {
2247             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "array-subscript assignment cannot produce lvalues");
2248             return false;
2249         }
2250
2251         arr = (ast_value*)ai->array;
2252         if (!ast_istype(ai->array, ast_value) || !arr->setter) {
2253             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "value has no setter (%s)", arr->name);
2254             return false;
2255         }
2256
2257         cgen = arr->setter->expression.codegen;
2258         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(arr->setter), func, true, &funval))
2259             return false;
2260
2261         call = ir_block_create_call(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), ast_function_label(func, "store"), funval, false);
2262         if (!call)
2263             return false;
2264         ir_call_param(call, iridx);
2265         ir_call_param(call, bin);
2266         self->expression.outr = bin;
2267     } else {
2268         /* now store them */
2269         cgen = self->dest->codegen;
2270         /* lvalue of destination */
2271         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->dest), func, true, &leftl))
2272             return false;
2273         self->expression.outl = leftl;
2274
2275         if (!ir_block_create_store_op(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), self->opstore, leftl, bin))
2276             return false;
2277         self->expression.outr = bin;
2278     }
2279
2280     /* Theoretically, an assinment returns its left side as an
2281      * lvalue, if we don't need an lvalue though, we return
2282      * the right side as an rvalue, otherwise we have to
2283      * somehow know whether or not we need to dereference the pointer
2284      * on the left side - that is: OP_LOAD if it was an address.
2285      * Also: in original QC we cannot OP_LOADP *anyway*.
2286      */
2287     *out = (lvalue ? leftl : bin);
2288
2289     return true;
2290 }
2291
2292 bool ast_unary_codegen(ast_unary *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
2293 {
2294     ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
2295     ir_value *operand;
2296
2297     /* An unary operation cannot yield an l-value */
2298     if (lvalue) {
2299         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "not an l-value (binop)");
2300         return false;
2301     }
2302
2303     if (self->expression.outr) {
2304         *out = self->expression.outr;
2305         return true;
2306     }
2307
2308     cgen = self->operand->codegen;
2309     /* lvalue! */
2310     if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->operand), func, false, &operand))
2311         return false;
2312
2313     *out = ir_block_create_unary(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), ast_function_label(func, "unary"),
2314                                  self->op, operand);
2315     if (!*out)
2316         return false;
2317     self->expression.outr = *out;
2318
2319     return true;
2320 }
2321
2322 bool ast_return_codegen(ast_return *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
2323 {
2324     ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
2325     ir_value *operand;
2326
2327     *out = nullptr;
2328
2329     /* In the context of a return operation, we don't actually return
2330      * anything...
2331      */
2332     if (lvalue) {
2333         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "return-expression is not an l-value");
2334         return false;
2335     }
2336
2337     if (self->expression.outr) {
2338         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_return cannot be reused, it bears no result!");
2339         return false;
2340     }
2341     self->expression.outr = (ir_value*)1;
2342
2343     if (self->operand) {
2344         cgen = self->operand->codegen;
2345         /* lvalue! */
2346         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->operand), func, false, &operand))
2347             return false;
2348
2349         if (!ir_block_create_return(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), operand))
2350             return false;
2351     } else {
2352         if (!ir_block_create_return(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), nullptr))
2353             return false;
2354     }
2355
2356     return true;
2357 }
2358
2359 bool ast_entfield_codegen(ast_entfield *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
2360 {
2361     ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
2362     ir_value *ent, *field;
2363
2364     /* This function needs to take the 'lvalue' flag into account!
2365      * As lvalue we provide a field-pointer, as rvalue we provide the
2366      * value in a temp.
2367      */
2368
2369     if (lvalue && self->expression.outl) {
2370         *out = self->expression.outl;
2371         return true;
2372     }
2373
2374     if (!lvalue && self->expression.outr) {
2375         *out = self->expression.outr;
2376         return true;
2377     }
2378
2379     cgen = self->entity->codegen;
2380     if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->entity), func, false, &ent))
2381         return false;
2382
2383     cgen = self->field->codegen;
2384     if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->field), func, false, &field))
2385         return false;
2386
2387     if (lvalue) {
2388         /* address! */
2389         *out = ir_block_create_fieldaddress(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), ast_function_label(func, "efa"),
2390                                             ent, field);
2391     } else {
2392         *out = ir_block_create_load_from_ent(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), ast_function_label(func, "efv"),
2393                                              ent, field, self->expression.vtype);
2394         /* Done AFTER error checking:
2395         codegen_output_type(self, *out);
2396         */
2397     }
2398     if (!*out) {
2399         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "failed to create %s instruction (output type %s)",
2400                  (lvalue ? "ADDRESS" : "FIELD"),
2401                  type_name[self->expression.vtype]);
2402         return false;
2403     }
2404     if (!lvalue)
2405         codegen_output_type(self, *out);
2406
2407     if (lvalue)
2408         self->expression.outl = *out;
2409     else
2410         self->expression.outr = *out;
2411
2412     /* Hm that should be it... */
2413     return true;
2414 }
2415
2416 bool ast_member_codegen(ast_member *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
2417 {
2418     ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
2419     ir_value *vec;
2420
2421     /* in QC this is always an lvalue */
2422     if (lvalue && self->rvalue) {
2423         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "not an l-value (member access)");
2424         return false;
2425     }
2426     if (self->expression.outl) {
2427         *out = self->expression.outl;
2428         return true;
2429     }
2430
2431     cgen = self->owner->codegen;
2432     if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->owner), func, false, &vec))
2433         return false;
2434
2435     if (vec->vtype != TYPE_VECTOR &&
2436         !(vec->vtype == TYPE_FIELD && self->owner->next->vtype == TYPE_VECTOR))
2437     {
2438         return false;
2439     }
2440
2441     *out = ir_value_vector_member(vec, self->field);
2442     self->expression.outl = *out;
2443
2444     return (*out != nullptr);
2445 }
2446
2447 bool ast_array_index_codegen(ast_array_index *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
2448 {
2449     ast_value *arr;
2450     ast_value *idx;
2451
2452     if (!lvalue && self->expression.outr) {
2453         *out = self->expression.outr;
2454         return true;
2455     }
2456     if (lvalue && self->expression.outl) {
2457         *out = self->expression.outl;
2458         return true;
2459     }
2460
2461     if (!ast_istype(self->array, ast_value)) {
2462         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "array indexing this way is not supported");
2463         /* note this would actually be pointer indexing because the left side is
2464          * not an actual array but (hopefully) an indexable expression.
2465          * Once we get integer arithmetic, and GADDRESS/GSTORE/GLOAD instruction
2466          * support this path will be filled.
2467          */
2468         return false;
2469     }
2470
2471     arr = (ast_value*)self->array;
2472     idx = (ast_value*)self->index;
2473
2474     if (!ast_istype(self->index, ast_value) || !idx->hasvalue || idx->cvq != CV_CONST) {
2475         /* Time to use accessor functions */
2476         ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
2477         ir_value               *iridx, *funval;
2478         ir_instr               *call;
2479
2480         if (lvalue) {
2481             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "(.2) array indexing here needs a compile-time constant");
2482             return false;
2483         }
2484
2485         if (!arr->getter) {
2486             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "value has no getter, don't know how to index it");
2487             return false;
2488         }
2489
2490         cgen = self->index->codegen;
2491         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->index), func, false, &iridx))
2492             return false;
2493
2494         cgen = arr->getter->expression.codegen;
2495         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(arr->getter), func, true, &funval))
2496             return false;
2497
2498         call = ir_block_create_call(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), ast_function_label(func, "fetch"), funval, false);
2499         if (!call)
2500             return false;
2501         ir_call_param(call, iridx);
2502
2503         *out = ir_call_value(call);
2504         self->expression.outr = *out;
2505         (*out)->vtype = self->expression.vtype;
2506         codegen_output_type(self, *out);
2507         return true;
2508     }
2509
2510     if (idx->expression.vtype == TYPE_FLOAT) {
2511         unsigned int arridx = idx->constval.vfloat;
2512         if (arridx >= self->array->count)
2513         {
2514             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "array index out of bounds: %i", arridx);
2515             return false;
2516         }
2517         *out = arr->ir_values[arridx];
2518     }
2519     else if (idx->expression.vtype == TYPE_INTEGER) {
2520         unsigned int arridx = idx->constval.vint;
2521         if (arridx >= self->array->count)
2522         {
2523             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "array index out of bounds: %i", arridx);
2524             return false;
2525         }
2526         *out = arr->ir_values[arridx];
2527     }
2528     else {
2529         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "array indexing here needs an integer constant");
2530         return false;
2531     }
2532     (*out)->vtype = self->expression.vtype;
2533     codegen_output_type(self, *out);
2534     return true;
2535 }
2536
2537 bool ast_argpipe_codegen(ast_argpipe *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
2538 {
2539     *out = nullptr;
2540     if (lvalue) {
2541         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "argpipe node: not an lvalue");
2542         return false;
2543     }
2544     (void)func;
2545     (void)out;
2546     compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "TODO: argpipe codegen not implemented");
2547     return false;
2548 }
2549
2550 bool ast_ifthen_codegen(ast_ifthen *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
2551 {
2552     ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
2553
2554     ir_value *condval;
2555     ir_value *dummy;
2556
2557     ir_block *cond;
2558     ir_block *ontrue;
2559     ir_block *onfalse;
2560     ir_block *ontrue_endblock = nullptr;
2561     ir_block *onfalse_endblock = nullptr;
2562     ir_block *merge = nullptr;
2563     int       fold  = 0;
2564
2565     /* We don't output any value, thus also don't care about r/lvalue */
2566     (void)out;
2567     (void)lvalue;
2568
2569     if (self->expression.outr) {
2570         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_ifthen cannot be reused, it bears no result!");
2571         return false;
2572     }
2573     self->expression.outr = (ir_value*)1;
2574
2575     /* generate the condition */
2576     cgen = self->cond->codegen;
2577     if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->cond), func, false, &condval))
2578         return false;
2579     /* update the block which will get the jump - because short-logic or ternaries may have changed this */
2580     cond = func->curblock;
2581
2582     /* try constant folding away the condition */
2583     if ((fold = fold_cond_ifthen(condval, func, self)) != -1)
2584         return fold;
2585
2586     if (self->on_true) {
2587         /* create on-true block */
2588         ontrue = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "ontrue"));
2589         if (!ontrue)
2590             return false;
2591
2592         /* enter the block */
2593         func->curblock = ontrue;
2594
2595         /* generate */
2596         cgen = self->on_true->codegen;
2597         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->on_true), func, false, &dummy))
2598             return false;
2599
2600         /* we now need to work from the current endpoint */
2601         ontrue_endblock = func->curblock;
2602     } else
2603         ontrue = nullptr;
2604
2605     /* on-false path */
2606     if (self->on_false) {
2607         /* create on-false block */
2608         onfalse = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "onfalse"));
2609         if (!onfalse)
2610             return false;
2611
2612         /* enter the block */
2613         func->curblock = onfalse;
2614
2615         /* generate */
2616         cgen = self->on_false->codegen;
2617         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->on_false), func, false, &dummy))
2618             return false;
2619
2620         /* we now need to work from the current endpoint */
2621         onfalse_endblock = func->curblock;
2622     } else
2623         onfalse = nullptr;
2624
2625     /* Merge block were they all merge in to */
2626     if (!ontrue || !onfalse || !ontrue_endblock->final || !onfalse_endblock->final)
2627     {
2628         merge = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "endif"));
2629         if (!merge)
2630             return false;
2631         /* add jumps ot the merge block */
2632         if (ontrue && !ontrue_endblock->final && !ir_block_create_jump(ontrue_endblock, ast_ctx(self), merge))
2633             return false;
2634         if (onfalse && !onfalse_endblock->final && !ir_block_create_jump(onfalse_endblock, ast_ctx(self), merge))
2635             return false;
2636
2637         /* Now enter the merge block */
2638         func->curblock = merge;
2639     }
2640
2641     /* we create the if here, that way all blocks are ordered :)
2642      */
2643     if (!ir_block_create_if(cond, ast_ctx(self), condval,
2644                             (ontrue  ? ontrue  : merge),
2645                             (onfalse ? onfalse : merge)))
2646     {
2647         return false;
2648     }
2649
2650     return true;
2651 }
2652
2653 bool ast_ternary_codegen(ast_ternary *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
2654 {
2655     ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
2656
2657     ir_value *condval;
2658     ir_value *trueval, *falseval;
2659     ir_instr *phi;
2660
2661     ir_block *cond = func->curblock;
2662     ir_block *cond_out = nullptr;
2663     ir_block *ontrue, *ontrue_out = nullptr;
2664     ir_block *onfalse, *onfalse_out = nullptr;
2665     ir_block *merge;
2666     int       fold  = 0;
2667
2668     /* Ternary can never create an lvalue... */
2669     if (lvalue)
2670         return false;
2671
2672     /* In theory it shouldn't be possible to pass through a node twice, but
2673      * in case we add any kind of optimization pass for the AST itself, it
2674      * may still happen, thus we remember a created ir_value and simply return one
2675      * if it already exists.
2676      */
2677     if (self->expression.outr) {
2678         *out = self->expression.outr;
2679         return true;
2680     }
2681
2682     /* In the following, contraty to ast_ifthen, we assume both paths exist. */
2683
2684     /* generate the condition */
2685     func->curblock = cond;
2686     cgen = self->cond->codegen;
2687     if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->cond), func, false, &condval))
2688         return false;
2689     cond_out = func->curblock;
2690
2691     /* try constant folding away the condition */
2692     if ((fold = fold_cond_ternary(condval, func, self)) != -1)
2693         return fold;
2694
2695     /* create on-true block */
2696     ontrue = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "tern_T"));
2697     if (!ontrue)
2698         return false;
2699     else
2700     {
2701         /* enter the block */
2702         func->curblock = ontrue;
2703
2704         /* generate */
2705         cgen = self->on_true->codegen;
2706         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->on_true), func, false, &trueval))
2707             return false;
2708
2709         ontrue_out = func->curblock;
2710     }
2711
2712     /* create on-false block */
2713     onfalse = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "tern_F"));
2714     if (!onfalse)
2715         return false;
2716     else
2717     {
2718         /* enter the block */
2719         func->curblock = onfalse;
2720
2721         /* generate */
2722         cgen = self->on_false->codegen;
2723         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->on_false), func, false, &falseval))
2724             return false;
2725
2726         onfalse_out = func->curblock;
2727     }
2728
2729     /* create merge block */
2730     merge = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "tern_out"));
2731     if (!merge)
2732         return false;
2733     /* jump to merge block */
2734     if (!ir_block_create_jump(ontrue_out, ast_ctx(self), merge))
2735         return false;
2736     if (!ir_block_create_jump(onfalse_out, ast_ctx(self), merge))
2737         return false;
2738
2739     /* create if instruction */
2740     if (!ir_block_create_if(cond_out, ast_ctx(self), condval, ontrue, onfalse))
2741         return false;
2742
2743     /* Now enter the merge block */
2744     func->curblock = merge;
2745
2746     /* Here, now, we need a PHI node
2747      * but first some sanity checking...
2748      */
2749     if (trueval->vtype != falseval->vtype && trueval->vtype != TYPE_NIL && falseval->vtype != TYPE_NIL) {
2750         /* error("ternary with different types on the two sides"); */
2751         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ternary operand types invalid");
2752         return false;
2753     }
2754
2755     /* create PHI */
2756     phi = ir_block_create_phi(merge, ast_ctx(self), ast_function_label(func, "phi"), self->expression.vtype);
2757     if (!phi) {
2758         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: failed to generate phi node");
2759         return false;
2760     }
2761     ir_phi_add(phi, ontrue_out,  trueval);
2762     ir_phi_add(phi, onfalse_out, falseval);
2763
2764     self->expression.outr = ir_phi_value(phi);
2765     *out = self->expression.outr;
2766
2767     codegen_output_type(self, *out);
2768
2769     return true;
2770 }
2771
2772 bool ast_loop_codegen(ast_loop *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
2773 {
2774     ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
2775
2776     ir_value *dummy      = nullptr;
2777     ir_value *precond    = nullptr;
2778     ir_value *postcond   = nullptr;
2779
2780     /* Since we insert some jumps "late" so we have blocks
2781      * ordered "nicely", we need to keep track of the actual end-blocks
2782      * of expressions to add the jumps to.
2783      */
2784     ir_block *bbody      = nullptr, *end_bbody      = nullptr;
2785     ir_block *bprecond   = nullptr, *end_bprecond   = nullptr;
2786     ir_block *bpostcond  = nullptr, *end_bpostcond  = nullptr;
2787     ir_block *bincrement = nullptr, *end_bincrement = nullptr;
2788     ir_block *bout       = nullptr, *bin            = nullptr;
2789
2790     /* let's at least move the outgoing block to the end */
2791     size_t    bout_id;
2792
2793     /* 'break' and 'continue' need to be able to find the right blocks */
2794     ir_block *bcontinue     = nullptr;
2795     ir_block *bbreak        = nullptr;
2796
2797     ir_block *tmpblock      = nullptr;
2798
2799     (void)lvalue;
2800     (void)out;
2801
2802     if (self->expression.outr) {
2803         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_loop cannot be reused, it bears no result!");
2804         return false;
2805     }
2806     self->expression.outr = (ir_value*)1;
2807
2808     /* NOTE:
2809      * Should we ever need some kind of block ordering, better make this function
2810      * move blocks around than write a block ordering algorithm later... after all
2811      * the ast and ir should work together, not against each other.
2812      */
2813
2814     /* initexpr doesn't get its own block, it's pointless, it could create more blocks
2815      * anyway if for example it contains a ternary.
2816      */
2817     if (self->initexpr)
2818     {
2819         cgen = self->initexpr->codegen;
2820         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->initexpr), func, false, &dummy))
2821             return false;
2822     }
2823
2824     /* Store the block from which we enter this chaos */
2825     bin = func->curblock;
2826
2827     /* The pre-loop condition needs its own block since we
2828      * need to be able to jump to the start of that expression.
2829      */
2830     if (self->precond)
2831     {
2832         bprecond = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "pre_loop_cond"));
2833         if (!bprecond)
2834             return false;
2835
2836         /* the pre-loop-condition the least important place to 'continue' at */
2837         bcontinue = bprecond;
2838
2839         /* enter */
2840         func->curblock = bprecond;
2841
2842         /* generate */
2843         cgen = self->precond->codegen;
2844         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->precond), func, false, &precond))
2845             return false;
2846
2847         end_bprecond = func->curblock;
2848     } else {
2849         bprecond = end_bprecond = nullptr;
2850     }
2851
2852     /* Now the next blocks won't be ordered nicely, but we need to
2853      * generate them this early for 'break' and 'continue'.
2854      */
2855     if (self->increment) {
2856         bincrement = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "loop_increment"));
2857         if (!bincrement)
2858             return false;
2859         bcontinue = bincrement; /* increment comes before the pre-loop-condition */
2860     } else {
2861         bincrement = end_bincrement = nullptr;
2862     }
2863
2864     if (self->postcond) {
2865         bpostcond = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "post_loop_cond"));
2866         if (!bpostcond)
2867             return false;
2868         bcontinue = bpostcond; /* postcond comes before the increment */
2869     } else {
2870         bpostcond = end_bpostcond = nullptr;
2871     }
2872
2873     bout_id = vec_size(func->ir_func->blocks);
2874     bout = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "after_loop"));
2875     if (!bout)
2876         return false;
2877     bbreak = bout;
2878
2879     /* The loop body... */
2880     /* if (self->body) */
2881     {
2882         bbody = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "loop_body"));
2883         if (!bbody)
2884             return false;
2885
2886         /* enter */
2887         func->curblock = bbody;
2888
2889         func->breakblocks.push_back(bbreak);
2890         if (bcontinue)
2891             func->continueblocks.push_back(bcontinue);
2892         else
2893             func->continueblocks.push_back(bbody);
2894
2895         /* generate */
2896         if (self->body) {
2897             cgen = self->body->codegen;
2898             if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->body), func, false, &dummy))
2899                 return false;
2900         }
2901
2902         end_bbody = func->curblock;
2903         func->breakblocks.pop_back();
2904         func->continueblocks.pop_back();
2905     }
2906
2907     /* post-loop-condition */
2908     if (self->postcond)
2909     {
2910         /* enter */
2911         func->curblock = bpostcond;
2912
2913         /* generate */
2914         cgen = self->postcond->codegen;
2915         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->postcond), func, false, &postcond))
2916             return false;
2917
2918         end_bpostcond = func->curblock;
2919     }
2920
2921     /* The incrementor */
2922     if (self->increment)
2923     {
2924         /* enter */
2925         func->curblock = bincrement;
2926
2927         /* generate */
2928         cgen = self->increment->codegen;
2929         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->increment), func, false, &dummy))
2930             return false;
2931
2932         end_bincrement = func->curblock;
2933     }
2934
2935     /* In any case now, we continue from the outgoing block */
2936     func->curblock = bout;
2937
2938     /* Now all blocks are in place */
2939     /* From 'bin' we jump to whatever comes first */
2940     if      (bprecond)   tmpblock = bprecond;
2941     else                 tmpblock = bbody;    /* can never be null */
2942
2943     /* DEAD CODE
2944     else if (bpostcond)  tmpblock = bpostcond;
2945     else                 tmpblock = bout;
2946     */
2947
2948     if (!ir_block_create_jump(bin, ast_ctx(self), tmpblock))
2949         return false;
2950
2951     /* From precond */
2952     if (bprecond)
2953     {
2954         ir_block *ontrue, *onfalse;
2955         ontrue = bbody; /* can never be null */
2956
2957         /* all of this is dead code
2958         else if (bincrement) ontrue = bincrement;
2959         else                 ontrue = bpostcond;
2960         */
2961
2962         onfalse = bout;
2963         if (self->pre_not) {
2964             tmpblock = ontrue;
2965             ontrue   = onfalse;
2966             onfalse  = tmpblock;
2967         }
2968         if (!ir_block_create_if(end_bprecond, ast_ctx(self), precond, ontrue, onfalse))
2969             return false;
2970     }
2971
2972     /* from body */
2973     if (bbody)
2974     {
2975         if      (bincrement) tmpblock = bincrement;
2976         else if (bpostcond)  tmpblock = bpostcond;
2977         else if (bprecond)   tmpblock = bprecond;
2978         else                 tmpblock = bbody;
2979         if (!end_bbody->final && !ir_block_create_jump(end_bbody, ast_ctx(self), tmpblock))
2980             return false;
2981     }
2982
2983     /* from increment */
2984     if (bincrement)
2985     {
2986         if      (bpostcond)  tmpblock = bpostcond;
2987         else if (bprecond)   tmpblock = bprecond;
2988         else if (bbody)      tmpblock = bbody;
2989         else                 tmpblock = bout;
2990         if (!ir_block_create_jump(end_bincrement, ast_ctx(self), tmpblock))
2991             return false;
2992     }
2993
2994     /* from postcond */
2995     if (bpostcond)
2996     {
2997         ir_block *ontrue, *onfalse;
2998         if      (bprecond)   ontrue = bprecond;
2999         else                 ontrue = bbody; /* can never be null */
3000
3001         /* all of this is dead code
3002         else if (bincrement) ontrue = bincrement;
3003         else                 ontrue = bpostcond;
3004         */
3005
3006         onfalse = bout;
3007         if (self->post_not) {
3008             tmpblock = ontrue;
3009             ontrue   = onfalse;
3010             onfalse  = tmpblock;
3011         }
3012         if (!ir_block_create_if(end_bpostcond, ast_ctx(self), postcond, ontrue, onfalse))
3013             return false;
3014     }
3015
3016     /* Move 'bout' to the end */
3017     vec_remove(func->ir_func->blocks, bout_id, 1);
3018     vec_push(func->ir_func->blocks, bout);
3019
3020     return true;
3021 }
3022
3023 bool ast_breakcont_codegen(ast_breakcont *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
3024 {
3025     ir_block *target;
3026
3027     *out = nullptr;
3028
3029     if (lvalue) {
3030         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "break/continue expression is not an l-value");
3031         return false;
3032     }
3033
3034     if (self->expression.outr) {
3035         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_breakcont cannot be reused!");
3036         return false;
3037     }
3038     self->expression.outr = (ir_value*)1;
3039
3040     if (self->is_continue)
3041         target = func->continueblocks[func->continueblocks.size()-1-self->levels];
3042     else
3043         target = func->breakblocks[func->breakblocks.size()-1-self->levels];
3044
3045     if (!target) {
3046         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "%s is lacking a target block", (self->is_continue ? "continue" : "break"));
3047         return false;
3048     }
3049
3050     if (!ir_block_create_jump(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), target))
3051         return false;
3052     return true;
3053 }
3054
3055 bool ast_switch_codegen(ast_switch *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
3056 {
3057     ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
3058
3059     ast_switch_case *def_case     = nullptr;
3060     ir_block        *def_bfall    = nullptr;
3061     ir_block        *def_bfall_to = nullptr;
3062     bool set_def_bfall_to = false;
3063
3064     ir_value *dummy     = nullptr;
3065     ir_value *irop      = nullptr;
3066     ir_block *bout      = nullptr;
3067     ir_block *bfall     = nullptr;
3068     size_t    bout_id;
3069
3070     char      typestr[1024];
3071     uint16_t  cmpinstr;
3072
3073     if (lvalue) {
3074         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "switch expression is not an l-value");
3075         return false;
3076     }
3077
3078     if (self->expression.outr) {
3079         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_switch cannot be reused!");
3080         return false;
3081     }
3082     self->expression.outr = (ir_value*)1;
3083
3084     (void)lvalue;
3085     (void)out;
3086
3087     cgen = self->operand->codegen;
3088     if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->operand), func, false, &irop))
3089         return false;
3090
3091     if (self->cases.empty())
3092         return true;
3093
3094     cmpinstr = type_eq_instr[irop->vtype];
3095     if (cmpinstr >= VINSTR_END) {
3096         ast_type_to_string(self->operand, typestr, sizeof(typestr));
3097         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "invalid type to perform a switch on: %s", typestr);
3098         return false;
3099     }
3100
3101     bout_id = vec_size(func->ir_func->blocks);
3102     bout = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "after_switch"));
3103     if (!bout)
3104         return false;
3105
3106     /* setup the break block */
3107     func->breakblocks.push_back(bout);
3108
3109     /* Now create all cases */
3110     for (auto &it : self->cases) {
3111         ir_value *cond, *val;
3112         ir_block *bcase, *bnot;
3113         size_t bnot_id;
3114
3115         ast_switch_case *swcase = &it;
3116
3117         if (swcase->value) {
3118             /* A regular case */
3119             /* generate the condition operand */
3120             cgen = swcase->value->codegen;
3121             if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(swcase->value), func, false, &val))
3122                 return false;
3123             /* generate the condition */
3124             cond = ir_block_create_binop(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), ast_function_label(func, "switch_eq"), cmpinstr, irop, val);
3125             if (!cond)
3126                 return false;
3127
3128             bcase = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "case"));
3129             bnot_id = vec_size(func->ir_func->blocks);
3130             bnot = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "not_case"));
3131             if (!bcase || !bnot)
3132                 return false;
3133             if (set_def_bfall_to) {
3134                 set_def_bfall_to = false;
3135                 def_bfall_to = bcase;
3136             }
3137             if (!ir_block_create_if(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), cond, bcase, bnot))
3138                 return false;
3139
3140             /* Make the previous case-end fall through */
3141             if (bfall && !bfall->final) {
3142                 if (!ir_block_create_jump(bfall, ast_ctx(self), bcase))
3143                     return false;
3144             }
3145
3146             /* enter the case */
3147             func->curblock = bcase;
3148             cgen = swcase->code->codegen;
3149             if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)swcase->code, func, false, &dummy))
3150                 return false;
3151
3152             /* remember this block to fall through from */
3153             bfall = func->curblock;
3154
3155             /* enter the else and move it down */
3156             func->curblock = bnot;
3157             vec_remove(func->ir_func->blocks, bnot_id, 1);
3158             vec_push(func->ir_func->blocks, bnot);
3159         } else {
3160             /* The default case */
3161             /* Remember where to fall through from: */
3162             def_bfall = bfall;
3163             bfall     = nullptr;
3164             /* remember which case it was */
3165             def_case  = swcase;
3166             /* And the next case will be remembered */
3167             set_def_bfall_to = true;
3168         }
3169     }
3170
3171     /* Jump from the last bnot to bout */
3172     if (bfall && !bfall->final && !ir_block_create_jump(bfall, ast_ctx(self), bout)) {
3173         /*
3174         astwarning(ast_ctx(bfall), WARN_???, "missing break after last case");
3175         */
3176         return false;
3177     }
3178
3179     /* If there was a default case, put it down here */
3180     if (def_case) {
3181         ir_block *bcase;
3182
3183         /* No need to create an extra block */
3184         bcase = func->curblock;
3185
3186         /* Insert the fallthrough jump */
3187         if (def_bfall && !def_bfall->final) {
3188             if (!ir_block_create_jump(def_bfall, ast_ctx(self), bcase))
3189                 return false;
3190         }
3191
3192         /* Now generate the default code */
3193         cgen = def_case->code->codegen;
3194         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)def_case->code, func, false, &dummy))
3195             return false;
3196
3197         /* see if we need to fall through */
3198         if (def_bfall_to && !func->curblock->final)
3199         {
3200             if (!ir_block_create_jump(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), def_bfall_to))
3201                 return false;
3202         }
3203     }
3204
3205     /* Jump from the last bnot to bout */
3206     if (!func->curblock->final && !ir_block_create_jump(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), bout))
3207         return false;
3208     /* enter the outgoing block */
3209     func->curblock = bout;
3210
3211     /* restore the break block */
3212     func->breakblocks.pop_back();
3213
3214     /* Move 'bout' to the end, it's nicer */
3215     vec_remove(func->ir_func->blocks, bout_id, 1);
3216     vec_push(func->ir_func->blocks, bout);
3217
3218     return true;
3219 }
3220
3221 bool ast_label_codegen(ast_label *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
3222 {
3223     ir_value *dummy;
3224
3225     if (self->undefined) {
3226         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_label never defined");
3227         return false;
3228     }
3229
3230     *out = nullptr;
3231     if (lvalue) {
3232         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_label cannot be an lvalue");
3233         return false;
3234     }
3235
3236     /* simply create a new block and jump to it */
3237     self->irblock = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, self->name);
3238     if (!self->irblock) {
3239         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "failed to allocate label block `%s`", self->name);
3240         return false;
3241     }
3242     if (!func->curblock->final) {
3243         if (!ir_block_create_jump(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), self->irblock))
3244             return false;
3245     }
3246
3247     /* enter the new block */
3248     func->curblock = self->irblock;
3249
3250     /* Generate all the leftover gotos */
3251     for (auto &it : self->gotos) {
3252         if (!ast_goto_codegen(it, func, false, &dummy))
3253             return false;
3254     }
3255
3256     return true;
3257 }
3258
3259 bool ast_goto_codegen(ast_goto *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
3260 {
3261     *out = nullptr;
3262     if (lvalue) {
3263         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_goto cannot be an lvalue");
3264         return false;
3265     }
3266
3267     if (self->target->irblock) {
3268         if (self->irblock_from) {
3269             /* we already tried once, this is the callback */
3270             self->irblock_from->final = false;
3271             if (!ir_block_create_goto(self->irblock_from, ast_ctx(self), self->target->irblock)) {
3272                 compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "failed to generate goto to `%s`", self->name);
3273                 return false;
3274             }
3275         }
3276         else
3277         {
3278             if (!ir_block_create_goto(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), self->target->irblock)) {
3279                 compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "failed to generate goto to `%s`", self->name);
3280                 return false;
3281             }
3282         }
3283     }
3284     else
3285     {
3286         /* the target has not yet been created...
3287          * close this block in a sneaky way:
3288          */
3289         func->curblock->final = true;
3290         self->irblock_from = func->curblock;
3291         ast_label_register_goto(self->target, self);
3292     }
3293
3294     return true;
3295 }
3296
3297 #include <stdio.h>
3298 bool ast_state_codegen(ast_state *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
3299 {
3300     ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
3301
3302     ir_value *frameval, *thinkval;
3303
3304     if (lvalue) {
3305         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "not an l-value (state operation)");
3306         return false;
3307     }
3308     if (self->expression.outr) {
3309         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_state cannot be reused!");
3310         return false;
3311     }
3312     *out = nullptr;
3313
3314     cgen = self->framenum->codegen;
3315     if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->framenum), func, false, &frameval))
3316         return false;
3317     if (!frameval)
3318         return false;
3319
3320     cgen = self->nextthink->codegen;
3321     if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->nextthink), func, false, &thinkval))
3322         return false;
3323     if (!frameval)
3324         return false;
3325
3326     if (!ir_block_create_state_op(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), frameval, thinkval)) {
3327         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "failed to create STATE instruction");
3328         return false;
3329     }
3330
3331     self->expression.outr = (ir_value*)1;
3332     return true;
3333 }
3334
3335 bool ast_call_codegen(ast_call *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
3336 {
3337     ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
3338     std::vector<ir_value*> params;
3339     ir_instr *callinstr;
3340
3341     ir_value *funval = nullptr;
3342
3343     /* return values are never lvalues */
3344     if (lvalue) {
3345         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "not an l-value (function call)");
3346         return false;
3347     }
3348
3349     if (self->expression.outr) {
3350         *out = self->expression.outr;
3351         return true;
3352     }
3353
3354     cgen = self->func->codegen;
3355     if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->func), func, false, &funval))
3356         return false;
3357     if (!funval)
3358         return false;
3359
3360     /* parameters */
3361     for (auto &it : self->params) {
3362         ir_value *param;
3363         cgen = it->codegen;
3364         if (!(*cgen)(it, func, false, &param))
3365             return false;
3366         if (!param)
3367             return false;
3368         params.push_back(param);
3369     }
3370
3371     /* varargs counter */
3372     if (self->va_count) {
3373         ir_value   *va_count;
3374         ir_builder *builder = func->curblock->owner->owner;
3375         cgen = self->va_count->codegen;
3376         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->va_count), func, false, &va_count))
3377             return false;
3378         if (!ir_block_create_store_op(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), INSTR_STORE_F,
3379                                       ir_builder_get_va_count(builder), va_count))
3380         {
3381             return false;
3382         }
3383     }
3384
3385     callinstr = ir_block_create_call(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self),
3386                                      ast_function_label(func, "call"),
3387                                      funval, !!(self->func->flags & AST_FLAG_NORETURN));
3388     if (!callinstr)
3389         return false;
3390
3391     for (auto &it : params)
3392         ir_call_param(callinstr, it);
3393
3394     *out = ir_call_value(callinstr);
3395     self->expression.outr = *out;
3396
3397     codegen_output_type(self, *out);
3398
3399     return true;
3400 }