temp committing major c++ification
[xonotic/gmqcc.git] / ast.cpp
diff --git a/ast.cpp b/ast.cpp
index 2a6657d..c2c3b47 100644 (file)
--- a/ast.cpp
+++ b/ast.cpp
@@ -5,12 +5,13 @@
 
 #include "gmqcc.h"
 #include "ast.h"
-#include "parser.h"
+#include "fold.h"
+//#include "parser.h"
 
 #define ast_instantiate(T, ctx, destroyfn)                          \
     T* self = (T*)mem_a(sizeof(T));                                 \
     if (!self) {                                                    \
-        return NULL;                                                \
+        return nullptr;                                                \
     }                                                               \
     new (self) T();                                                 \
     ast_node_init((ast_node*)self, ctx, TYPE_##T);                  \
@@ -66,12 +67,12 @@ static GMQCC_NORETURN void _ast_node_destroy(ast_node *self)
 }
 
 /* Initialize main ast node aprts */
-static void ast_node_init(ast_node *self, lex_ctx_t ctx, int nodetype)
+static void ast_node_init(ast_node *self, lex_ctx_t ctx, int node_type)
 {
     self->context = ctx;
-    self->destroy = &_ast_node_destroy;
-    self->keep    = false;
-    self->nodetype = nodetype;
+    self->destroy      = &_ast_node_destroy;
+    self->keep_node    = false;
+    self->node_type    = node_type;
     self->side_effects = false;
 }
 
@@ -89,11 +90,11 @@ static void ast_expression_init(ast_expression *self,
 {
     self->codegen  = codegen;
     self->vtype    = TYPE_VOID;
-    self->next     = NULL;
-    self->outl     = NULL;
-    self->outr     = NULL;
+    self->next     = nullptr;
+    self->outl     = nullptr;
+    self->outr     = nullptr;
     self->count    = 0;
-    self->varparam = NULL;
+    self->varparam = nullptr;
     self->flags    = 0;
     if (OPTS_OPTION_BOOL(OPTION_COVERAGE))
         self->flags |= AST_FLAG_BLOCK_COVERAGE;
@@ -103,7 +104,7 @@ static void ast_expression_delete(ast_expression *self)
 {
     if (self->next)
         ast_delete(self->next);
-    for (auto &it : self->params)
+    for (auto &it : self->type_params)
         ast_delete(it);
     if (self->varparam)
         ast_delete(self->varparam);
@@ -117,19 +118,17 @@ static void ast_expression_delete_full(ast_expression *self)
 
 ast_value* ast_value_copy(const ast_value *self)
 {
-    const ast_expression *fromex;
-    ast_expression *selfex;
-    ast_value *cp = ast_value_new(self->expression.node.context, self->name, self->expression.vtype);
-    if (self->expression.next) {
-        cp->expression.next = ast_type_copy(self->expression.node.context, self->expression.next);
+    ast_value *cp = ast_value_new(self->context, self->name, self->vtype);
+    if (self->next) {
+        cp->next = ast_type_copy(self->context, self->next);
     }
-    fromex = &self->expression;
-    selfex = &cp->expression;
+    const ast_expression *fromex = self;
+    ast_expression *selfex = cp;
     selfex->count = fromex->count;
     selfex->flags = fromex->flags;
-    for (auto &it : fromex->params) {
+    for (auto &it : fromex->type_params) {
         ast_value *v = ast_value_copy(it);
-        selfex->params.push_back(v);
+        selfex->type_params.push_back(v);
     }
     return cp;
 }
@@ -146,18 +145,18 @@ void ast_type_adopt_impl(ast_expression *self, const ast_expression *other)
     selfex = self;
     selfex->count = fromex->count;
     selfex->flags = fromex->flags;
-    for (auto &it : fromex->params) {
+    for (auto &it : fromex->type_params) {
         ast_value *v = ast_value_copy(it);
-        selfex->params.push_back(v);
+        selfex->type_params.push_back(v);
     }
 }
 
-static ast_expression* ast_shallow_type(lex_ctx_t ctx, int vtype)
+static ast_expression* ast_shallow_type(lex_ctx_t ctx, qc_type vtype)
 {
     ast_instantiate(ast_expression, ctx, ast_expression_delete_full);
-    ast_expression_init(self, NULL);
-    self->codegen = NULL;
-    self->next    = NULL;
+    ast_expression_init(self, nullptr);
+    self->codegen = nullptr;
+    self->next    = nullptr;
     self->vtype   = vtype;
     return self;
 }
@@ -168,29 +167,29 @@ ast_expression* ast_type_copy(lex_ctx_t ctx, const ast_expression *ex)
     ast_expression       *selfex;
 
     if (!ex)
-        return NULL;
+        return nullptr;
     else
     {
         ast_instantiate(ast_expression, ctx, ast_expression_delete_full);
-        ast_expression_init(self, NULL);
+        ast_expression_init(self, nullptr);
 
         fromex = ex;
         selfex = self;
 
         /* This may never be codegen()d */
-        selfex->codegen = NULL;
+        selfex->codegen = nullptr;
 
         selfex->vtype = fromex->vtype;
         if (fromex->next)
             selfex->next = ast_type_copy(ctx, fromex->next);
         else
-            selfex->next = NULL;
+            selfex->next = nullptr;
 
         selfex->count = fromex->count;
         selfex->flags = fromex->flags;
-        for (auto &it : fromex->params) {
+        for (auto &it : fromex->type_params) {
             ast_value *v = ast_value_copy(it);
-            selfex->params.push_back(v);
+            selfex->type_params.push_back(v);
         }
 
         return self;
@@ -206,18 +205,18 @@ bool ast_compare_type(ast_expression *a, ast_expression *b)
         return false;
     if (!a->next != !b->next)
         return false;
-    if (a->params.size() != b->params.size())
+    if (a->type_params.size() != b->type_params.size())
         return false;
     if ((a->flags & AST_FLAG_TYPE_MASK) !=
         (b->flags & AST_FLAG_TYPE_MASK) )
     {
         return false;
     }
-    if (a->params.size()) {
+    if (a->type_params.size()) {
         size_t i;
-        for (i = 0; i < a->params.size(); ++i) {
-            if (!ast_compare_type((ast_expression*)a->params[i],
-                                  (ast_expression*)b->params[i]))
+        for (i = 0; i < a->type_params.size(); ++i) {
+            if (!ast_compare_type((ast_expression*)a->type_params[i],
+                                  (ast_expression*)b->type_params[i]))
                 return false;
         }
     }
@@ -266,19 +265,19 @@ static size_t ast_type_to_string_impl(ast_expression *e, char *buf, size_t bufsi
             pos = ast_type_to_string_impl(e->next, buf, bufsize, pos);
             if (pos + 2 >= bufsize)
                 goto full;
-            if (e->params.empty()) {
+            if (e->type_params.empty()) {
                 buf[pos++] = '(';
                 buf[pos++] = ')';
                 return pos;
             }
             buf[pos++] = '(';
-            pos = ast_type_to_string_impl((ast_expression*)(e->params[0]), buf, bufsize, pos);
-            for (i = 1; i < e->params.size(); ++i) {
+            pos = ast_type_to_string_impl((ast_expression*)(e->type_params[0]), buf, bufsize, pos);
+            for (i = 1; i < e->type_params.size(); ++i) {
                 if (pos + 2 >= bufsize)
                     goto full;
                 buf[pos++] = ',';
                 buf[pos++] = ' ';
-                pos = ast_type_to_string_impl((ast_expression*)(e->params[i]), buf, bufsize, pos);
+                pos = ast_type_to_string_impl((ast_expression*)(e->type_params[i]), buf, bufsize, pos);
             }
             if (pos + 1 >= bufsize)
                 goto full;
@@ -319,16 +318,16 @@ void ast_type_to_string(ast_expression *e, char *buf, size_t bufsize)
 }
 
 static bool ast_value_codegen(ast_value *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out);
-ast_value* ast_value_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, const char *name, int t)
+ast_value* ast_value_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, const char *name, qc_type t)
 {
     ast_instantiate(ast_value, ctx, ast_value_delete);
     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self,
                         (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_value_codegen);
-    self->expression.node.keep = true; /* keep */
+    self->keep_node = true; /* keep */
 
-    self->name = name ? util_strdup(name) : NULL;
-    self->expression.vtype = t;
-    self->expression.next  = NULL;
+    self->name = name ? util_strdup(name) : nullptr;
+    self->vtype    = t;
+    self->next     = nullptr;
     self->isfield  = false;
     self->cvq      = CV_NONE;
     self->hasvalue = false;
@@ -337,15 +336,15 @@ ast_value* ast_value_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, const char *name, int t)
     self->uses     = 0;
     memset(&self->constval, 0, sizeof(self->constval));
 
-    self->ir_v           = NULL;
-    self->ir_values      = NULL;
+    self->ir_v           = nullptr;
+    self->ir_values      = nullptr;
     self->ir_value_count = 0;
 
-    self->setter = NULL;
-    self->getter = NULL;
-    self->desc   = NULL;
+    self->setter = nullptr;
+    self->getter = nullptr;
+    self->desc   = nullptr;
 
-    self->argcounter = NULL;
+    self->argcounter = nullptr;
     self->intrinsic = false;
 
     return self;
@@ -358,14 +357,14 @@ void ast_value_delete(ast_value* self)
     if (self->argcounter)
         mem_d((void*)self->argcounter);
     if (self->hasvalue) {
-        switch (self->expression.vtype)
+        switch (self->vtype)
         {
         case TYPE_STRING:
             mem_d((void*)self->constval.vstring);
             break;
         case TYPE_FUNCTION:
             /* unlink us from the function node */
-            self->constval.vfunc->vtype = NULL;
+            self->constval.vfunc->function_type = nullptr;
             break;
         /* NOTE: delete function? currently collected in
          * the parser structure
@@ -381,7 +380,7 @@ void ast_value_delete(ast_value* self)
         mem_d(self->desc);
 
     // initlist imples an array which implies .next in the expression exists.
-    if (self->initlist.size() && self->expression.next->vtype == TYPE_STRING) {
+    if (self->initlist.size() && self->next->vtype == TYPE_STRING) {
         for (auto &it : self->initlist)
             if (it.vstring)
                 mem_d(it.vstring);
@@ -393,7 +392,7 @@ void ast_value_delete(ast_value* self)
 
 void ast_value_params_add(ast_value *self, ast_value *p)
 {
-    self->expression.params.push_back(p);
+    self->type_params.push_back(p);
 }
 
 bool ast_value_set_name(ast_value *self, const char *name)
@@ -437,21 +436,21 @@ ast_binary* ast_binary_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, int op,
     ast_propagate_effects(self, right);
 
     if (op >= INSTR_EQ_F && op <= INSTR_GT)
-        self->expression.vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
+        self->vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
     else if (op == INSTR_AND || op == INSTR_OR) {
         if (OPTS_FLAG(PERL_LOGIC))
             ast_type_adopt(self, right);
         else
-            self->expression.vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
+            self->vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
     }
     else if (op == INSTR_BITAND || op == INSTR_BITOR)
-        self->expression.vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
+        self->vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
     else if (op == INSTR_MUL_VF || op == INSTR_MUL_FV)
-        self->expression.vtype = TYPE_VECTOR;
+        self->vtype = TYPE_VECTOR;
     else if (op == INSTR_MUL_V)
-        self->expression.vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
+        self->vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
     else
-        self->expression.vtype = left->vtype;
+        self->vtype = left->vtype;
 
     /* references all */
     self->refs = AST_REF_ALL;
@@ -524,9 +523,9 @@ ast_unary* ast_unary_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, int op,
     ast_propagate_effects(self, expr);
 
     if ((op >= INSTR_NOT_F && op <= INSTR_NOT_FNC) || op == VINSTR_NEG_F) {
-        self->expression.vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
+        self->vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
     } else if (op == VINSTR_NEG_V) {
-        self->expression.vtype = TYPE_VECTOR;
+        self->vtype = TYPE_VECTOR;
     } else {
         compile_error(ctx, "cannot determine type of unary operation %s", util_instr_str[op]);
     }
@@ -566,7 +565,7 @@ ast_entfield* ast_entfield_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *entity, ast_expres
 {
     if (field->vtype != TYPE_FIELD) {
         compile_error(ctx, "ast_entfield_new with expression not of type field");
-        return NULL;
+        return nullptr;
     }
     return ast_entfield_new_force(ctx, entity, field, field->next);
 }
@@ -578,7 +577,7 @@ ast_entfield* ast_entfield_new_force(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *entity, ast_
     if (!outtype) {
         mem_d(self);
         /* Error: field has no type... */
-        return NULL;
+        return nullptr;
     }
 
     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_entfield_codegen);
@@ -605,25 +604,25 @@ ast_member* ast_member_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *owner, unsigned int fi
     ast_instantiate(ast_member, ctx, ast_member_delete);
     if (field >= 3) {
         mem_d(self);
-        return NULL;
+        return nullptr;
     }
 
     if (owner->vtype != TYPE_VECTOR &&
         owner->vtype != TYPE_FIELD) {
         compile_error(ctx, "member-access on an invalid owner of type %s", type_name[owner->vtype]);
         mem_d(self);
-        return NULL;
+        return nullptr;
     }
 
     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_member_codegen);
-    self->expression.node.keep = true; /* keep */
+    self->keep_node = true; /* keep */
 
     if (owner->vtype == TYPE_VECTOR) {
-        self->expression.vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
-        self->expression.next  = NULL;
+        self->vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
+        self->next  = nullptr;
     } else {
-        self->expression.vtype = TYPE_FIELD;
-        self->expression.next = ast_shallow_type(ctx, TYPE_FLOAT);
+        self->vtype = TYPE_FIELD;
+        self->next = ast_shallow_type(ctx, TYPE_FLOAT);
     }
 
     self->rvalue = false;
@@ -634,14 +633,14 @@ ast_member* ast_member_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *owner, unsigned int fi
     if (name)
         self->name = util_strdup(name);
     else
-        self->name = NULL;
+        self->name = nullptr;
 
     return self;
 }
 
 void ast_member_delete(ast_member *self)
 {
-    /* The owner is always an ast_value, which has .keep=true,
+    /* The owner is always an ast_value, which has .keep_node=true,
      * also: ast_members are usually deleted after the owner, thus
      * this will cause invalid access
     ast_unref(self->owner);
@@ -671,7 +670,7 @@ ast_array_index* ast_array_index_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *array, ast_e
     if (!outtype) {
         mem_d(self);
         /* Error: field has no type... */
-        return NULL;
+        return nullptr;
     }
 
     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_array_index_codegen);
@@ -683,13 +682,13 @@ ast_array_index* ast_array_index_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *array, ast_e
 
     ast_type_adopt(self, outtype);
     if (array->vtype == TYPE_FIELD && outtype->vtype == TYPE_ARRAY) {
-        if (self->expression.vtype != TYPE_ARRAY) {
+        if (self->vtype != TYPE_ARRAY) {
             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "array_index node on type");
             ast_array_index_delete(self);
-            return NULL;
+            return nullptr;
         }
         self->array = outtype;
-        self->expression.vtype = TYPE_FIELD;
+        self->vtype = TYPE_FIELD;
     }
 
     return self;
@@ -710,7 +709,7 @@ ast_argpipe* ast_argpipe_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *index)
     ast_instantiate(ast_argpipe, ctx, ast_argpipe_delete);
     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_argpipe_codegen);
     self->index = index;
-    self->expression.vtype = TYPE_NOEXPR;
+    self->vtype = TYPE_NOEXPR;
     return self;
 }
 
@@ -728,7 +727,7 @@ ast_ifthen* ast_ifthen_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *cond, ast_expression *
     if (!ontrue && !onfalse) {
         /* because it is invalid */
         mem_d(self);
-        return NULL;
+        return nullptr;
     }
     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_ifthen_codegen);
 
@@ -759,10 +758,10 @@ ast_ternary* ast_ternary_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *cond, ast_expression
 {
     ast_expression *exprtype = ontrue;
     ast_instantiate(ast_ternary, ctx, ast_ternary_delete);
-    /* This time NEITHER must be NULL */
+    /* This time NEITHER must be nullptr */
     if (!ontrue || !onfalse) {
         mem_d(self);
-        return NULL;
+        return nullptr;
     }
     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_ternary_codegen);
 
@@ -783,7 +782,7 @@ ast_ternary* ast_ternary_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *cond, ast_expression
 void ast_ternary_delete(ast_ternary *self)
 {
     /* the if()s are only there because computed-gotos can set them
-     * to NULL
+     * to nullptr
      */
     if (self->cond)     ast_unref(self->cond);
     if (self->on_true)  ast_unref(self->on_true);
@@ -864,7 +863,6 @@ ast_switch* ast_switch_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *op)
     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_switch_codegen);
 
     self->operand = op;
-    self->cases   = NULL;
 
     ast_propagate_effects(self, op);
 
@@ -873,15 +871,13 @@ ast_switch* ast_switch_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *op)
 
 void ast_switch_delete(ast_switch *self)
 {
-    size_t i;
     ast_unref(self->operand);
 
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(self->cases); ++i) {
-        if (self->cases[i].value)
-            ast_unref(self->cases[i].value);
-        ast_unref(self->cases[i].code);
+    for (auto &it : self->cases) {
+        if (it.value)
+            ast_unref(it.value);
+        ast_unref(it.code);
     }
-    vec_free(self->cases);
 
     ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
     mem_d(self);
@@ -892,10 +888,10 @@ ast_label* ast_label_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, const char *name, bool undefined)
     ast_instantiate(ast_label, ctx, ast_label_delete);
     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_label_codegen);
 
-    self->expression.vtype = TYPE_NOEXPR;
+    self->vtype = TYPE_NOEXPR;
 
     self->name      = util_strdup(name);
-    self->irblock   = NULL;
+    self->irblock   = nullptr;
     self->undefined = undefined;
 
     return self;
@@ -919,8 +915,8 @@ ast_goto* ast_goto_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, const char *name)
     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_goto_codegen);
 
     self->name    = util_strdup(name);
-    self->target  = NULL;
-    self->irblock_from = NULL;
+    self->target  = nullptr;
+    self->irblock_from = nullptr;
 
     return self;
 }
@@ -964,14 +960,14 @@ ast_call* ast_call_new(lex_ctx_t ctx,
     if (!funcexpr->next) {
         compile_error(ctx, "not a function");
         mem_d(self);
-        return NULL;
+        return nullptr;
     }
     ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_call_codegen);
 
     ast_side_effects(self) = true;
 
     self->func     = funcexpr;
-    self->va_count = NULL;
+    self->va_count = nullptr;
 
     ast_type_adopt(self, funcexpr->next);
 
@@ -1044,8 +1040,8 @@ bool ast_call_check_types(ast_call *self, ast_expression *va_type)
     bool retval = true;
     const ast_expression *func = self->func;
     size_t count = self->params.size();
-    if (count > func->params.size())
-        count = func->params.size();
+    if (count > func->type_params.size())
+        count = func->type_params.size();
 
     for (i = 0; i < count; ++i) {
         if (ast_istype(self->params[i], ast_argpipe)) {
@@ -1054,13 +1050,13 @@ bool ast_call_check_types(ast_call *self, ast_expression *va_type)
                 compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "argpipe must be the last parameter to a function call");
                 return false;
             }
-            if (!ast_call_check_vararg(self, va_type, (ast_expression*)func->params[i]))
+            if (!ast_call_check_vararg(self, va_type, (ast_expression*)func->type_params[i]))
                 retval = false;
         }
-        else if (!ast_compare_type(self->params[i], (ast_expression*)(func->params[i])))
+        else if (!ast_compare_type(self->params[i], (ast_expression*)(func->type_params[i])))
         {
             ast_type_to_string(self->params[i], tgot, sizeof(tgot));
-            ast_type_to_string((ast_expression*)func->params[i], texp, sizeof(texp));
+            ast_type_to_string((ast_expression*)func->type_params[i], texp, sizeof(texp));
             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "invalid type for parameter %u in function call: expected %s, got %s",
                      (unsigned int)(i+1), texp, tgot);
             /* we don't immediately return */
@@ -1068,7 +1064,7 @@ bool ast_call_check_types(ast_call *self, ast_expression *va_type)
         }
     }
     count = self->params.size();
-    if (count > func->params.size() && func->varparam) {
+    if (count > func->type_params.size() && func->varparam) {
         for (; i < count; ++i) {
             if (ast_istype(self->params[i], ast_argpipe)) {
                 /* warn about type safety instead */
@@ -1130,9 +1126,9 @@ bool ast_block_add_expr(ast_block *self, ast_expression *e)
 {
     ast_propagate_effects(self, e);
     self->exprs.push_back(e);
-    if (self->expression.next) {
-        ast_delete(self->expression.next);
-        self->expression.next = NULL;
+    if (self->next) {
+        ast_delete(self->next);
+        self->next = nullptr;
     }
     ast_type_adopt(self, e);
     return true;
@@ -1141,7 +1137,7 @@ bool ast_block_add_expr(ast_block *self, ast_expression *e)
 void ast_block_collect(ast_block *self, ast_expression *expr)
 {
     self->collect.push_back(expr);
-    expr->node.keep = true;
+    expr->keep_node = true;
 }
 
 void ast_block_delete(ast_block *self)
@@ -1155,8 +1151,8 @@ void ast_block_delete(ast_block *self)
 
 void ast_block_set_type(ast_block *self, ast_expression *from)
 {
-    if (self->expression.next)
-        ast_delete(self->expression.next);
+    if (self->next)
+        ast_delete(self->next);
     ast_type_adopt(self, from);
 }
 
@@ -1167,65 +1163,56 @@ ast_function* ast_function_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, const char *name, ast_value *vtype
     if (!vtype) {
         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_function_new condition 0");
         goto cleanup;
-    } else if (vtype->hasvalue || vtype->expression.vtype != TYPE_FUNCTION) {
+    } else if (vtype->hasvalue || vtype->vtype != TYPE_FUNCTION) {
         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_function_new condition %i %i type=%i (probably 2 bodies?)",
                  (int)!vtype,
                  (int)vtype->hasvalue,
-                 vtype->expression.vtype);
+                 vtype->vtype);
         goto cleanup;
     }
 
-    self->vtype  = vtype;
-    self->name   = name ? util_strdup(name) : NULL;
+    self->function_type = vtype;
+    self->name          = name ? util_strdup(name) : nullptr;
 
     self->labelcount = 0;
     self->builtin = 0;
 
-    self->ir_func = NULL;
-    self->curblock = NULL;
-
-    self->breakblocks    = NULL;
-    self->continueblocks = NULL;
+    self->ir_func = nullptr;
+    self->curblock = nullptr;
 
     vtype->hasvalue = true;
     vtype->constval.vfunc = self;
 
-    self->varargs          = NULL;
-    self->argc             = NULL;
-    self->fixedparams      = NULL;
-    self->return_value     = NULL;
-
-    self->static_names     = NULL;
+    self->varargs          = nullptr;
+    self->argc             = nullptr;
+    self->fixedparams      = nullptr;
+    self->return_value     = nullptr;
     self->static_count     = 0;
 
     return self;
 
 cleanup:
     mem_d(self);
-    return NULL;
+    return nullptr;
 }
 
 void ast_function_delete(ast_function *self)
 {
-    size_t i;
     if (self->name)
         mem_d((void*)self->name);
-    if (self->vtype) {
-        /* ast_value_delete(self->vtype); */
-        self->vtype->hasvalue = false;
-        self->vtype->constval.vfunc = NULL;
+    if (self->function_type) {
+        /* ast_value_delete(self->function_type); */
+        self->function_type->hasvalue = false;
+        self->function_type->constval.vfunc = nullptr;
         /* We use unref - if it was stored in a global table it is supposed
          * to be deleted from *there*
          */
-        ast_unref(self->vtype);
+        ast_unref(self->function_type);
     }
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(self->static_names); ++i)
-        mem_d(self->static_names[i]);
-    vec_free(self->static_names);
+    for (auto &it : self->static_names)
+        mem_d(it);
     for (auto &it : self->blocks)
         ast_delete(it);
-    vec_free(self->breakblocks);
-    vec_free(self->continueblocks);
     if (self->varargs)
         ast_delete(self->varargs);
     if (self->argc)
@@ -1247,7 +1234,7 @@ const char* ast_function_label(ast_function *self, const char *prefix)
         !OPTS_OPTION_BOOL(OPTION_DUMPFIN) &&
         !OPTS_OPTION_BOOL(OPTION_DEBUG))
     {
-        return NULL;
+        return nullptr;
     }
 
     id  = (self->labelcount++);
@@ -1266,7 +1253,7 @@ const char* ast_function_label(ast_function *self, const char *prefix)
 
 /*********************************************************************/
 /* AST codegen part
- * by convention you must never pass NULL to the 'ir_value **out'
+ * by convention you must never pass nullptr to the 'ir_value **out'
  * parameter. If you really don't care about the output, pass a dummy.
  * But I can't imagine a pituation where the output is truly unnecessary.
  */
@@ -1279,17 +1266,17 @@ static void _ast_codegen_output_type(ast_expression *self, ir_value *out)
         out->outtype = self->next->vtype;
 }
 
-#define codegen_output_type(a,o) (_ast_codegen_output_type(&((a)->expression),(o)))
+#define codegen_output_type(a,o) (_ast_codegen_output_type(static_cast<ast_expression*>((a)),(o)))
 
 bool ast_value_codegen(ast_value *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
 {
     (void)func;
     (void)lvalue;
-    if (self->expression.vtype == TYPE_NIL) {
+    if (self->vtype == TYPE_NIL) {
         *out = func->ir_func->owner->nil;
         return true;
     }
-    /* NOTE: This is the codegen for a variable used in an expression.
+    /* NOTE: This is the codegen for a variable used in an 
      * It is not the codegen to generate the value. For this purpose,
      * ast_local_codegen and ast_global_codegen are to be used before this
      * is executed. ast_function_codegen should take care of its locals,
@@ -1311,18 +1298,18 @@ static bool ast_global_array_set(ast_value *self)
     size_t count = self->initlist.size();
     size_t i;
 
-    if (count > self->expression.count) {
+    if (count > self->count) {
         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "too many elements in initializer");
-        count = self->expression.count;
+        count = self->count;
     }
-    else if (count < self->expression.count) {
+    else if (count < self->count) {
         /* add this?
         compile_warning(ast_ctx(self), "not all elements are initialized");
         */
     }
 
     for (i = 0; i != count; ++i) {
-        switch (self->expression.next->vtype) {
+        switch (self->next->vtype) {
             case TYPE_FLOAT:
                 if (!ir_value_set_float(self->ir_values[i], self->initlist[i].vfloat))
                     return false;
@@ -1356,7 +1343,7 @@ static bool ast_global_array_set(ast_value *self)
                     return false;
                 break;
             default:
-                compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "TODO: global constant type %i", self->expression.vtype);
+                compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "TODO: global constant type %i", self->vtype);
                 break;
         }
     }
@@ -1365,13 +1352,13 @@ static bool ast_global_array_set(ast_value *self)
 
 static bool check_array(ast_value *self, ast_value *array)
 {
-    if (array->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_ARRAY_INIT && array->initlist.empty()) {
+    if (array->flags & AST_FLAG_ARRAY_INIT && array->initlist.empty()) {
         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "array without size: %s", self->name);
         return false;
     }
     /* we are lame now - considering the way QC works we won't tolerate arrays > 1024 elements */
-    if (!array->expression.count || array->expression.count > OPTS_OPTION_U32(OPTION_MAX_ARRAY_SIZE)) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "Invalid array of size %lu", (unsigned long)array->expression.count);
+    if (!array->count || array->count > OPTS_OPTION_U32(OPTION_MAX_ARRAY_SIZE)) {
+        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "Invalid array of size %lu", (unsigned long)array->count);
         return false;
     }
     return true;
@@ -1379,16 +1366,16 @@ static bool check_array(ast_value *self, ast_value *array)
 
 bool ast_global_codegen(ast_value *self, ir_builder *ir, bool isfield)
 {
-    ir_value *v = NULL;
+    ir_value *v = nullptr;
 
-    if (self->expression.vtype == TYPE_NIL) {
+    if (self->vtype == TYPE_NIL) {
         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: trying to generate a variable of TYPE_NIL");
         return false;
     }
 
-    if (self->hasvalue && self->expression.vtype == TYPE_FUNCTION)
+    if (self->hasvalue && self->vtype == TYPE_FUNCTION)
     {
-        ir_function *func = ir_builder_create_function(ir, self->name, self->expression.next->vtype);
+        ir_function *func = ir_builder_create_function(ir, self->name, self->next->vtype);
         if (!func)
             return false;
         func->context = ast_ctx(self);
@@ -1396,18 +1383,18 @@ bool ast_global_codegen(ast_value *self, ir_builder *ir, bool isfield)
 
         self->constval.vfunc->ir_func = func;
         self->ir_v = func->value;
-        if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
+        if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
             self->ir_v->flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
-        if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_ERASEABLE)
+        if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_ERASEABLE)
             self->ir_v->flags |= IR_FLAG_ERASABLE;
-        if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_BLOCK_COVERAGE)
+        if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_BLOCK_COVERAGE)
             func->flags |= IR_FLAG_BLOCK_COVERAGE;
         /* The function is filled later on ast_function_codegen... */
         return true;
     }
 
-    if (isfield && self->expression.vtype == TYPE_FIELD) {
-        ast_expression *fieldtype = self->expression.next;
+    if (isfield && self->vtype == TYPE_FIELD) {
+        ast_expression *fieldtype = self->next;
 
         if (self->hasvalue) {
             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "TODO: constant field pointers with value");
@@ -1420,7 +1407,7 @@ bool ast_global_codegen(ast_value *self, ir_builder *ir, bool isfield)
             size_t  namelen;
 
             ast_expression *elemtype;
-            int             vtype;
+            qc_type         vtype;
             ast_value      *array = (ast_value*)fieldtype;
 
             if (!ast_istype(fieldtype, ast_value)) {
@@ -1431,7 +1418,7 @@ bool ast_global_codegen(ast_value *self, ir_builder *ir, bool isfield)
             if (!check_array(self, array))
                 return false;
 
-            elemtype = array->expression.next;
+            elemtype = array->next;
             vtype = elemtype->vtype;
 
             v = ir_builder_create_field(ir, self->name, vtype);
@@ -1444,18 +1431,18 @@ bool ast_global_codegen(ast_value *self, ir_builder *ir, bool isfield)
             v->locked      = true;
             array->ir_v = self->ir_v = v;
 
-            if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
+            if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
                 self->ir_v->flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
-            if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_ERASEABLE)
+            if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_ERASEABLE)
                 self->ir_v->flags |= IR_FLAG_ERASABLE;
 
             namelen = strlen(self->name);
             name    = (char*)mem_a(namelen + 16);
             util_strncpy(name, self->name, namelen);
 
-            array->ir_values = (ir_value**)mem_a(sizeof(array->ir_values[0]) * array->expression.count);
+            array->ir_values = (ir_value**)mem_a(sizeof(array->ir_values[0]) * array->count);
             array->ir_values[0] = v;
-            for (ai = 1; ai < array->expression.count; ++ai) {
+            for (ai = 1; ai < array->count; ++ai) {
                 util_snprintf(name + namelen, 16, "[%u]", (unsigned int)ai);
                 array->ir_values[ai] = ir_builder_create_field(ir, name, vtype);
                 if (!array->ir_values[ai]) {
@@ -1466,36 +1453,36 @@ bool ast_global_codegen(ast_value *self, ir_builder *ir, bool isfield)
                 array->ir_values[ai]->context = ast_ctx(self);
                 array->ir_values[ai]->unique_life = true;
                 array->ir_values[ai]->locked      = true;
-                if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
+                if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
                     self->ir_values[ai]->flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
             }
             mem_d(name);
         }
         else
         {
-            v = ir_builder_create_field(ir, self->name, self->expression.next->vtype);
+            v = ir_builder_create_field(ir, self->name, self->next->vtype);
             if (!v)
                 return false;
             v->context = ast_ctx(self);
             self->ir_v = v;
-            if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
+            if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
                 self->ir_v->flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
 
-            if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_ERASEABLE)
+            if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_ERASEABLE)
                 self->ir_v->flags |= IR_FLAG_ERASABLE;
         }
         return true;
     }
 
-    if (self->expression.vtype == TYPE_ARRAY) {
+    if (self->vtype == TYPE_ARRAY) {
         size_t ai;
         char   *name;
         size_t  namelen;
 
-        ast_expression *elemtype = self->expression.next;
-        int vtype = elemtype->vtype;
+        ast_expression *elemtype = self->next;
+        qc_type vtype = elemtype->vtype;
 
-        if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_ARRAY_INIT && !self->expression.count) {
+        if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_ARRAY_INIT && !self->count) {
             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "array `%s' has no size", self->name);
             return false;
         }
@@ -1513,18 +1500,18 @@ bool ast_global_codegen(ast_value *self, ir_builder *ir, bool isfield)
         v->unique_life = true;
         v->locked      = true;
 
-        if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
+        if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
             v->flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
-        if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_ERASEABLE)
+        if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_ERASEABLE)
             self->ir_v->flags |= IR_FLAG_ERASABLE;
 
         namelen = strlen(self->name);
         name    = (char*)mem_a(namelen + 16);
         util_strncpy(name, self->name, namelen);
 
-        self->ir_values = (ir_value**)mem_a(sizeof(self->ir_values[0]) * self->expression.count);
+        self->ir_values = (ir_value**)mem_a(sizeof(self->ir_values[0]) * self->count);
         self->ir_values[0] = v;
-        for (ai = 1; ai < self->expression.count; ++ai) {
+        for (ai = 1; ai < self->count; ++ai) {
             util_snprintf(name + namelen, 16, "[%u]", (unsigned int)ai);
             self->ir_values[ai] = ir_builder_create_global(ir, name, vtype);
             if (!self->ir_values[ai]) {
@@ -1535,7 +1522,7 @@ bool ast_global_codegen(ast_value *self, ir_builder *ir, bool isfield)
             self->ir_values[ai]->context = ast_ctx(self);
             self->ir_values[ai]->unique_life = true;
             self->ir_values[ai]->locked      = true;
-            if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
+            if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
                 self->ir_values[ai]->flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
         }
         mem_d(name);
@@ -1545,7 +1532,7 @@ bool ast_global_codegen(ast_value *self, ir_builder *ir, bool isfield)
         /* Arrays don't do this since there's no "array" value which spans across the
          * whole thing.
          */
-        v = ir_builder_create_global(ir, self->name, self->expression.vtype);
+        v = ir_builder_create_global(ir, self->name, self->vtype);
         if (!v) {
             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "ir_builder_create_global failed on `%s`", self->name);
             return false;
@@ -1558,14 +1545,14 @@ bool ast_global_codegen(ast_value *self, ir_builder *ir, bool isfield)
     v->cvq = self->cvq;
     self->ir_v = v;
 
-    if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
+    if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
         self->ir_v->flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
-    if (self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_ERASEABLE)
+    if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_ERASEABLE)
         self->ir_v->flags |= IR_FLAG_ERASABLE;
 
     /* initialize */
     if (self->hasvalue) {
-        switch (self->expression.vtype)
+        switch (self->vtype)
         {
             case TYPE_FLOAT:
                 if (!ir_value_set_float(v, self->constval.vfloat))
@@ -1601,27 +1588,27 @@ bool ast_global_codegen(ast_value *self, ir_builder *ir, bool isfield)
                     goto error;
                 break;
             default:
-                compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "TODO: global constant type %i", self->expression.vtype);
+                compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "TODO: global constant type %i", self->vtype);
                 break;
         }
     }
     return true;
 
 error: /* clean up */
-    if(v) ir_value_delete(v);
+    if (v) delete v;
     return false;
 }
 
 static bool ast_local_codegen(ast_value *self, ir_function *func, bool param)
 {
-    ir_value *v = NULL;
+    ir_value *v = nullptr;
 
-    if (self->expression.vtype == TYPE_NIL) {
+    if (self->vtype == TYPE_NIL) {
         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: trying to generate a variable of TYPE_NIL");
         return false;
     }
 
-    if (self->hasvalue && self->expression.vtype == TYPE_FUNCTION)
+    if (self->hasvalue && self->vtype == TYPE_FUNCTION)
     {
         /* Do we allow local functions? I think not...
          * this is NOT a function pointer atm.
@@ -1629,17 +1616,17 @@ static bool ast_local_codegen(ast_value *self, ir_function *func, bool param)
         return false;
     }
 
-    if (self->expression.vtype == TYPE_ARRAY) {
+    if (self->vtype == TYPE_ARRAY) {
         size_t ai;
         char   *name;
         size_t  namelen;
 
-        ast_expression *elemtype = self->expression.next;
-        int vtype = elemtype->vtype;
+        ast_expression *elemtype = self->next;
+        qc_type vtype = elemtype->vtype;
 
         func->flags |= IR_FLAG_HAS_ARRAYS;
 
-        if (param && !(self->expression.flags & AST_FLAG_IS_VARARG)) {
+        if (param && !(self->flags & AST_FLAG_IS_VARARG)) {
             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "array-parameters are not supported");
             return false;
         }
@@ -1648,7 +1635,7 @@ static bool ast_local_codegen(ast_value *self, ir_function *func, bool param)
         if (!check_array(self, self))
             return false;
 
-        self->ir_values = (ir_value**)mem_a(sizeof(self->ir_values[0]) * self->expression.count);
+        self->ir_values = (ir_value**)mem_a(sizeof(self->ir_values[0]) * self->count);
         if (!self->ir_values) {
             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "failed to allocate array values");
             return false;
@@ -1668,7 +1655,7 @@ static bool ast_local_codegen(ast_value *self, ir_function *func, bool param)
         util_strncpy(name, self->name, namelen);
 
         self->ir_values[0] = v;
-        for (ai = 1; ai < self->expression.count; ++ai) {
+        for (ai = 1; ai < self->count; ++ai) {
             util_snprintf(name + namelen, 16, "[%u]", (unsigned int)ai);
             self->ir_values[ai] = ir_function_create_local(func, name, vtype, param);
             if (!self->ir_values[ai]) {
@@ -1683,7 +1670,7 @@ static bool ast_local_codegen(ast_value *self, ir_function *func, bool param)
     }
     else
     {
-        v = ir_function_create_local(func, self->name, self->expression.vtype, param);
+        v = ir_function_create_local(func, self->name, self->vtype, param);
         if (!v)
             return false;
         codegen_output_type(self, v);
@@ -1694,7 +1681,7 @@ static bool ast_local_codegen(ast_value *self, ir_function *func, bool param)
      * I suppose the IR will have to deal with this
      */
     if (self->hasvalue) {
-        switch (self->expression.vtype)
+        switch (self->vtype)
         {
             case TYPE_FLOAT:
                 if (!ir_value_set_float(v, self->constval.vfloat))
@@ -1709,7 +1696,7 @@ static bool ast_local_codegen(ast_value *self, ir_function *func, bool param)
                     goto error;
                 break;
             default:
-                compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "TODO: global constant type %i", self->expression.vtype);
+                compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "TODO: global constant type %i", self->vtype);
                 break;
         }
     }
@@ -1723,7 +1710,7 @@ static bool ast_local_codegen(ast_value *self, ir_function *func, bool param)
     return true;
 
 error: /* clean up */
-    ir_value_delete(v);
+    delete v;
     return false;
 }
 
@@ -1733,7 +1720,7 @@ bool ast_generate_accessors(ast_value *self, ir_builder *ir)
     bool warn = OPTS_WARN(WARN_USED_UNINITIALIZED);
     if (!self->setter || !self->getter)
         return true;
-    for (i = 0; i < self->expression.count; ++i) {
+    for (i = 0; i < self->count; ++i) {
         if (!self->ir_values) {
             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: no array values generated for `%s`", self->name);
             return false;
@@ -1742,7 +1729,7 @@ bool ast_generate_accessors(ast_value *self, ir_builder *ir)
             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: not all array values have been generated for `%s`", self->name);
             return false;
         }
-        if (self->ir_values[i]->life) {
+        if (!self->ir_values[i]->life.empty()) {
             compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: function containing `%s` already generated", self->name);
             return false;
         }
@@ -1769,9 +1756,8 @@ bool ast_generate_accessors(ast_value *self, ir_builder *ir)
             return false;
         }
     }
-    for (i = 0; i < self->expression.count; ++i) {
-        vec_free(self->ir_values[i]->life);
-    }
+    for (i = 0; i < self->count; ++i)
+        self->ir_values[i]->life.clear();
     opts_set(opts.warn, WARN_USED_UNINITIALIZED, warn);
     return true;
 }
@@ -1792,12 +1778,12 @@ bool ast_function_codegen(ast_function *self, ir_builder *ir)
     }
 
     /* fill the parameter list */
-    ec = &self->vtype->expression;
-    for (auto &it : ec->params) {
-        if (it->expression.vtype == TYPE_FIELD)
-            vec_push(irf->params, it->expression.next->vtype);
+    ec = self->function_type;
+    for (auto &it : ec->type_params) {
+        if (it->vtype == TYPE_FIELD)
+            vec_push(irf->params, it->next->vtype);
         else
-            vec_push(irf->params, it->expression.vtype);
+            vec_push(irf->params, it->vtype);
         if (!self->builtin) {
             if (!ast_local_codegen(it, self->ir_func, true))
                 return false;
@@ -1807,7 +1793,7 @@ bool ast_function_codegen(ast_function *self, ir_builder *ir)
     if (self->varargs) {
         if (!ast_local_codegen(self->varargs, self->ir_func, true))
             return false;
-        irf->max_varargs = self->varargs->expression.count;
+        irf->max_varargs = self->varargs->count;
     }
 
     if (self->builtin) {
@@ -1838,10 +1824,10 @@ bool ast_function_codegen(ast_function *self, ir_builder *ir)
         ir_value *sub;
         if (!ast_local_codegen(self->argc, self->ir_func, true))
             return false;
-        cgen = self->argc->expression.codegen;
+        cgen = self->argc->codegen;
         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->argc), self, false, &va_count))
             return false;
-        cgen = self->fixedparams->expression.codegen;
+        cgen = self->fixedparams->codegen;
         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->fixedparams), self, false, &fixed))
             return false;
         sub = ir_block_create_binop(self->curblock, ast_ctx(self),
@@ -1857,7 +1843,7 @@ bool ast_function_codegen(ast_function *self, ir_builder *ir)
     }
 
     for (auto &it : self->blocks) {
-        cgen = it->expression.codegen;
+        cgen = it->codegen;
         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)it, self, false, &dummy))
             return false;
     }
@@ -1865,26 +1851,26 @@ bool ast_function_codegen(ast_function *self, ir_builder *ir)
     /* TODO: check return types */
     if (!self->curblock->final)
     {
-        if (!self->vtype->expression.next ||
-            self->vtype->expression.next->vtype == TYPE_VOID)
+        if (!self->function_type->next ||
+            self->function_type->next->vtype == TYPE_VOID)
         {
-            return ir_block_create_return(self->curblock, ast_ctx(self), NULL);
+            return ir_block_create_return(self->curblock, ast_ctx(self), nullptr);
         }
         else if (vec_size(self->curblock->entries) || self->curblock == irf->first)
         {
             if (self->return_value) {
-                cgen = self->return_value->expression.codegen;
+                cgen = self->return_value->codegen;
                 if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->return_value), self, false, &dummy))
                     return false;
                 return ir_block_create_return(self->curblock, ast_ctx(self), dummy);
             }
             else if (compile_warning(ast_ctx(self), WARN_MISSING_RETURN_VALUES,
                                 "control reaches end of non-void function (`%s`) via %s",
-                                self->name, self->curblock->label))
+                                self->name, self->curblock->label.c_str()))
             {
                 return false;
             }
-            return ir_block_create_return(self->curblock, ast_ctx(self), NULL);
+            return ir_block_create_return(self->curblock, ast_ctx(self), nullptr);
         }
     }
     return true;
@@ -1918,18 +1904,18 @@ bool ast_block_codegen(ast_block *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_valu
         return false;
     }
 
-    if (self->expression.outr) {
-        *out = self->expression.outr;
+    if (self->outr) {
+        *out = self->outr;
         return true;
     }
 
-    /* output is NULL at first, we'll have each expression
+    /* output is nullptr at first, we'll have each expression
      * assign to out output, thus, a comma-operator represention
      * using an ast_block will return the last generated value,
      * so: (b, c) + a  executed both b and c, and returns c,
      * which is then added to a.
      */
-    *out = NULL;
+    *out = nullptr;
 
     /* generate locals */
     for (auto &it : self->locals) {
@@ -1952,7 +1938,7 @@ bool ast_block_codegen(ast_block *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_valu
             return false;
     }
 
-    self->expression.outr = *out;
+    self->outr = *out;
 
     return true;
 }
@@ -1960,20 +1946,20 @@ bool ast_block_codegen(ast_block *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_valu
 bool ast_store_codegen(ast_store *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
 {
     ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
-    ir_value *left  = NULL;
-    ir_value *right = NULL;
+    ir_value *left  = nullptr;
+    ir_value *right = nullptr;
 
     ast_value       *arr;
     ast_value       *idx = 0;
-    ast_array_index *ai = NULL;
+    ast_array_index *ai = nullptr;
 
-    if (lvalue && self->expression.outl) {
-        *out = self->expression.outl;
+    if (lvalue && self->outl) {
+        *out = self->outl;
         return true;
     }
 
-    if (!lvalue && self->expression.outr) {
-        *out = self->expression.outr;
+    if (!lvalue && self->outr) {
+        *out = self->outr;
         return true;
     }
 
@@ -1984,7 +1970,7 @@ bool ast_store_codegen(ast_store *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_valu
         idx = (ast_value*)ai->index;
 
         if (ast_istype(ai->index, ast_value) && idx->hasvalue && idx->cvq == CV_CONST)
-            ai = NULL;
+            ai = nullptr;
     }
 
     if (ai) {
@@ -2003,11 +1989,11 @@ bool ast_store_codegen(ast_store *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_valu
             return false;
         }
 
-        cgen = idx->expression.codegen;
+        cgen = idx->codegen;
         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(idx), func, false, &iridx))
             return false;
 
-        cgen = arr->setter->expression.codegen;
+        cgen = arr->setter->codegen;
         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(arr->setter), func, true, &funval))
             return false;
 
@@ -2020,7 +2006,7 @@ bool ast_store_codegen(ast_store *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_valu
             return false;
         ir_call_param(call, iridx);
         ir_call_param(call, right);
-        self->expression.outr = right;
+        self->outr = right;
     }
     else
     {
@@ -2030,7 +2016,7 @@ bool ast_store_codegen(ast_store *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_valu
         /* lvalue! */
         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->dest), func, true, &left))
             return false;
-        self->expression.outl = left;
+        self->outl = left;
 
         cgen = self->source->codegen;
         /* rvalue! */
@@ -2039,7 +2025,7 @@ bool ast_store_codegen(ast_store *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_valu
 
         if (!ir_block_create_store_op(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), self->op, left, right))
             return false;
-        self->expression.outr = right;
+        self->outr = right;
     }
 
     /* Theoretically, an assinment returns its left side as an
@@ -2065,8 +2051,8 @@ bool ast_binary_codegen(ast_binary *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
         return false;
     }
 
-    if (self->expression.outr) {
-        *out = self->expression.outr;
+    if (self->outr) {
+        *out = self->outr;
         return true;
     }
 
@@ -2082,7 +2068,7 @@ bool ast_binary_codegen(ast_binary *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
         size_t    merge_id;
 
         /* prepare end-block */
-        merge_id = vec_size(func->ir_func->blocks);
+        merge_id = func->ir_func->blocks.size();
         merge    = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "sce_merge"));
 
         /* generate the left expression */
@@ -2119,13 +2105,13 @@ bool ast_binary_codegen(ast_binary *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
         if (!ir_block_create_jump(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), merge))
             return false;
 
-        vec_remove(func->ir_func->blocks, merge_id, 1);
-        vec_push(func->ir_func->blocks, merge);
+        func->ir_func->blocks.erase(func->ir_func->blocks.begin() + merge_id);
+        func->ir_func->blocks.emplace_back(merge);
 
         func->curblock = merge;
         phi = ir_block_create_phi(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self),
                                   ast_function_label(func, "sce_value"),
-                                  self->expression.vtype);
+                                  self->vtype);
         ir_phi_add(phi, from_left, left);
         ir_phi_add(phi, from_right, right);
         *out = ir_phi_value(phi);
@@ -2167,7 +2153,7 @@ bool ast_binary_codegen(ast_binary *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
             }
         }
 
-        self->expression.outr = *out;
+        self->outr = *out;
         codegen_output_type(self, *out);
         return true;
     }
@@ -2192,7 +2178,7 @@ bool ast_binary_codegen(ast_binary *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
                                  self->op, left, right);
     if (!*out)
         return false;
-    self->expression.outr = *out;
+    self->outr = *out;
     codegen_output_type(self, *out);
 
     return true;
@@ -2201,20 +2187,20 @@ bool ast_binary_codegen(ast_binary *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
 bool ast_binstore_codegen(ast_binstore *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
 {
     ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
-    ir_value *leftl = NULL, *leftr, *right, *bin;
+    ir_value *leftl = nullptr, *leftr, *right, *bin;
 
     ast_value       *arr;
     ast_value       *idx = 0;
-    ast_array_index *ai = NULL;
-    ir_value        *iridx = NULL;
+    ast_array_index *ai = nullptr;
+    ir_value        *iridx = nullptr;
 
-    if (lvalue && self->expression.outl) {
-        *out = self->expression.outl;
+    if (lvalue && self->outl) {
+        *out = self->outl;
         return true;
     }
 
-    if (!lvalue && self->expression.outr) {
-        *out = self->expression.outr;
+    if (!lvalue && self->outr) {
+        *out = self->outr;
         return true;
     }
 
@@ -2225,13 +2211,13 @@ bool ast_binstore_codegen(ast_binstore *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, i
         idx = (ast_value*)ai->index;
 
         if (ast_istype(ai->index, ast_value) && idx->hasvalue && idx->cvq == CV_CONST)
-            ai = NULL;
+            ai = nullptr;
     }
 
     /* for a binstore we need both an lvalue and an rvalue for the left side */
     /* rvalue of destination! */
     if (ai) {
-        cgen = idx->expression.codegen;
+        cgen = idx->codegen;
         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(idx), func, false, &iridx))
             return false;
     }
@@ -2247,8 +2233,7 @@ bool ast_binstore_codegen(ast_binstore *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, i
     /* now the binary */
     bin = ir_block_create_binop(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), ast_function_label(func, "binst"),
                                 self->opbin, leftr, right);
-    self->expression.outr = bin;
-
+    self->outr = bin;
 
     if (ai) {
         /* we need to call the setter */
@@ -2266,7 +2251,7 @@ bool ast_binstore_codegen(ast_binstore *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, i
             return false;
         }
 
-        cgen = arr->setter->expression.codegen;
+        cgen = arr->setter->codegen;
         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(arr->setter), func, true, &funval))
             return false;
 
@@ -2275,18 +2260,18 @@ bool ast_binstore_codegen(ast_binstore *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, i
             return false;
         ir_call_param(call, iridx);
         ir_call_param(call, bin);
-        self->expression.outr = bin;
+        self->outr = bin;
     } else {
         /* now store them */
         cgen = self->dest->codegen;
         /* lvalue of destination */
         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->dest), func, true, &leftl))
             return false;
-        self->expression.outl = leftl;
+        self->outl = leftl;
 
         if (!ir_block_create_store_op(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), self->opstore, leftl, bin))
             return false;
-        self->expression.outr = bin;
+        self->outr = bin;
     }
 
     /* Theoretically, an assinment returns its left side as an
@@ -2312,8 +2297,8 @@ bool ast_unary_codegen(ast_unary *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_valu
         return false;
     }
 
-    if (self->expression.outr) {
-        *out = self->expression.outr;
+    if (self->outr) {
+        *out = self->outr;
         return true;
     }
 
@@ -2326,7 +2311,7 @@ bool ast_unary_codegen(ast_unary *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_valu
                                  self->op, operand);
     if (!*out)
         return false;
-    self->expression.outr = *out;
+    self->outr = *out;
 
     return true;
 }
@@ -2336,7 +2321,7 @@ bool ast_return_codegen(ast_return *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
     ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
     ir_value *operand;
 
-    *out = NULL;
+    *out = nullptr;
 
     /* In the context of a return operation, we don't actually return
      * anything...
@@ -2346,11 +2331,11 @@ bool ast_return_codegen(ast_return *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
         return false;
     }
 
-    if (self->expression.outr) {
+    if (self->outr) {
         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_return cannot be reused, it bears no result!");
         return false;
     }
-    self->expression.outr = (ir_value*)1;
+    self->outr = (ir_value*)1;
 
     if (self->operand) {
         cgen = self->operand->codegen;
@@ -2361,7 +2346,7 @@ bool ast_return_codegen(ast_return *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
         if (!ir_block_create_return(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), operand))
             return false;
     } else {
-        if (!ir_block_create_return(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), NULL))
+        if (!ir_block_create_return(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), nullptr))
             return false;
     }
 
@@ -2378,13 +2363,13 @@ bool ast_entfield_codegen(ast_entfield *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, i
      * value in a temp.
      */
 
-    if (lvalue && self->expression.outl) {
-        *out = self->expression.outl;
+    if (lvalue && self->outl) {
+        *out = self->outl;
         return true;
     }
 
-    if (!lvalue && self->expression.outr) {
-        *out = self->expression.outr;
+    if (!lvalue && self->outr) {
+        *out = self->outr;
         return true;
     }
 
@@ -2402,7 +2387,7 @@ bool ast_entfield_codegen(ast_entfield *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, i
                                             ent, field);
     } else {
         *out = ir_block_create_load_from_ent(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), ast_function_label(func, "efv"),
-                                             ent, field, self->expression.vtype);
+                                             ent, field, self->vtype);
         /* Done AFTER error checking:
         codegen_output_type(self, *out);
         */
@@ -2410,16 +2395,16 @@ bool ast_entfield_codegen(ast_entfield *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, i
     if (!*out) {
         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "failed to create %s instruction (output type %s)",
                  (lvalue ? "ADDRESS" : "FIELD"),
-                 type_name[self->expression.vtype]);
+                 type_name[self->vtype]);
         return false;
     }
     if (!lvalue)
         codegen_output_type(self, *out);
 
     if (lvalue)
-        self->expression.outl = *out;
+        self->outl = *out;
     else
-        self->expression.outr = *out;
+        self->outr = *out;
 
     /* Hm that should be it... */
     return true;
@@ -2435,8 +2420,8 @@ bool ast_member_codegen(ast_member *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "not an l-value (member access)");
         return false;
     }
-    if (self->expression.outl) {
-        *out = self->expression.outl;
+    if (self->outl) {
+        *out = self->outl;
         return true;
     }
 
@@ -2451,9 +2436,9 @@ bool ast_member_codegen(ast_member *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
     }
 
     *out = ir_value_vector_member(vec, self->field);
-    self->expression.outl = *out;
+    self->outl = *out;
 
-    return (*out != NULL);
+    return (*out != nullptr);
 }
 
 bool ast_array_index_codegen(ast_array_index *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
@@ -2461,12 +2446,12 @@ bool ast_array_index_codegen(ast_array_index *self, ast_function *func, bool lva
     ast_value *arr;
     ast_value *idx;
 
-    if (!lvalue && self->expression.outr) {
-        *out = self->expression.outr;
+    if (!lvalue && self->outr) {
+        *out = self->outr;
         return true;
     }
-    if (lvalue && self->expression.outl) {
-        *out = self->expression.outl;
+    if (lvalue && self->outl) {
+        *out = self->outl;
         return true;
     }
 
@@ -2503,7 +2488,7 @@ bool ast_array_index_codegen(ast_array_index *self, ast_function *func, bool lva
         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->index), func, false, &iridx))
             return false;
 
-        cgen = arr->getter->expression.codegen;
+        cgen = arr->getter->codegen;
         if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(arr->getter), func, true, &funval))
             return false;
 
@@ -2513,13 +2498,13 @@ bool ast_array_index_codegen(ast_array_index *self, ast_function *func, bool lva
         ir_call_param(call, iridx);
 
         *out = ir_call_value(call);
-        self->expression.outr = *out;
-        (*out)->vtype = self->expression.vtype;
+        self->outr = *out;
+        (*out)->vtype = self->vtype;
         codegen_output_type(self, *out);
         return true;
     }
 
-    if (idx->expression.vtype == TYPE_FLOAT) {
+    if (idx->vtype == TYPE_FLOAT) {
         unsigned int arridx = idx->constval.vfloat;
         if (arridx >= self->array->count)
         {
@@ -2528,7 +2513,7 @@ bool ast_array_index_codegen(ast_array_index *self, ast_function *func, bool lva
         }
         *out = arr->ir_values[arridx];
     }
-    else if (idx->expression.vtype == TYPE_INTEGER) {
+    else if (idx->vtype == TYPE_INTEGER) {
         unsigned int arridx = idx->constval.vint;
         if (arridx >= self->array->count)
         {
@@ -2541,14 +2526,14 @@ bool ast_array_index_codegen(ast_array_index *self, ast_function *func, bool lva
         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "array indexing here needs an integer constant");
         return false;
     }
-    (*out)->vtype = self->expression.vtype;
+    (*out)->vtype = self->vtype;
     codegen_output_type(self, *out);
     return true;
 }
 
 bool ast_argpipe_codegen(ast_argpipe *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
 {
-    *out = NULL;
+    *out = nullptr;
     if (lvalue) {
         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "argpipe node: not an lvalue");
         return false;
@@ -2569,20 +2554,20 @@ bool ast_ifthen_codegen(ast_ifthen *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
     ir_block *cond;
     ir_block *ontrue;
     ir_block *onfalse;
-    ir_block *ontrue_endblock = NULL;
-    ir_block *onfalse_endblock = NULL;
-    ir_block *merge = NULL;
-    int       fold  = 0;
+    ir_block *ontrue_endblock = nullptr;
+    ir_block *onfalse_endblock = nullptr;
+    ir_block *merge = nullptr;
+    int folded = 0;
 
     /* We don't output any value, thus also don't care about r/lvalue */
     (void)out;
     (void)lvalue;
 
-    if (self->expression.outr) {
+    if (self->outr) {
         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_ifthen cannot be reused, it bears no result!");
         return false;
     }
-    self->expression.outr = (ir_value*)1;
+    self->outr = (ir_value*)1;
 
     /* generate the condition */
     cgen = self->cond->codegen;
@@ -2592,8 +2577,8 @@ bool ast_ifthen_codegen(ast_ifthen *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
     cond = func->curblock;
 
     /* try constant folding away the condition */
-    if ((fold = fold_cond_ifthen(condval, func, self)) != -1)
-        return fold;
+    if ((folded = fold::cond_ifthen(condval, func, self)) != -1)
+        return folded;
 
     if (self->on_true) {
         /* create on-true block */
@@ -2612,7 +2597,7 @@ bool ast_ifthen_codegen(ast_ifthen *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
         /* we now need to work from the current endpoint */
         ontrue_endblock = func->curblock;
     } else
-        ontrue = NULL;
+        ontrue = nullptr;
 
     /* on-false path */
     if (self->on_false) {
@@ -2632,7 +2617,7 @@ bool ast_ifthen_codegen(ast_ifthen *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
         /* we now need to work from the current endpoint */
         onfalse_endblock = func->curblock;
     } else
-        onfalse = NULL;
+        onfalse = nullptr;
 
     /* Merge block were they all merge in to */
     if (!ontrue || !onfalse || !ontrue_endblock->final || !onfalse_endblock->final)
@@ -2671,11 +2656,11 @@ bool ast_ternary_codegen(ast_ternary *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_
     ir_instr *phi;
 
     ir_block *cond = func->curblock;
-    ir_block *cond_out = NULL;
-    ir_block *ontrue, *ontrue_out = NULL;
-    ir_block *onfalse, *onfalse_out = NULL;
+    ir_block *cond_out = nullptr;
+    ir_block *ontrue, *ontrue_out = nullptr;
+    ir_block *onfalse, *onfalse_out = nullptr;
     ir_block *merge;
-    int       fold  = 0;
+    int folded = 0;
 
     /* Ternary can never create an lvalue... */
     if (lvalue)
@@ -2686,8 +2671,8 @@ bool ast_ternary_codegen(ast_ternary *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_
      * may still happen, thus we remember a created ir_value and simply return one
      * if it already exists.
      */
-    if (self->expression.outr) {
-        *out = self->expression.outr;
+    if (self->outr) {
+        *out = self->outr;
         return true;
     }
 
@@ -2701,8 +2686,8 @@ bool ast_ternary_codegen(ast_ternary *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_
     cond_out = func->curblock;
 
     /* try constant folding away the condition */
-    if ((fold = fold_cond_ternary(condval, func, self)) != -1)
-        return fold;
+    if ((folded = fold::cond_ternary(condval, func, self)) != -1)
+        return folded;
 
     /* create on-true block */
     ontrue = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "tern_T"));
@@ -2765,7 +2750,7 @@ bool ast_ternary_codegen(ast_ternary *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_
     }
 
     /* create PHI */
-    phi = ir_block_create_phi(merge, ast_ctx(self), ast_function_label(func, "phi"), self->expression.vtype);
+    phi = ir_block_create_phi(merge, ast_ctx(self), ast_function_label(func, "phi"), self->vtype);
     if (!phi) {
         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: failed to generate phi node");
         return false;
@@ -2773,8 +2758,8 @@ bool ast_ternary_codegen(ast_ternary *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_
     ir_phi_add(phi, ontrue_out,  trueval);
     ir_phi_add(phi, onfalse_out, falseval);
 
-    self->expression.outr = ir_phi_value(phi);
-    *out = self->expression.outr;
+    self->outr = ir_phi_value(phi);
+    *out = self->outr;
 
     codegen_output_type(self, *out);
 
@@ -2785,37 +2770,37 @@ bool ast_loop_codegen(ast_loop *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value
 {
     ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
 
-    ir_value *dummy      = NULL;
-    ir_value *precond    = NULL;
-    ir_value *postcond   = NULL;
+    ir_value *dummy      = nullptr;
+    ir_value *precond    = nullptr;
+    ir_value *postcond   = nullptr;
 
     /* Since we insert some jumps "late" so we have blocks
      * ordered "nicely", we need to keep track of the actual end-blocks
      * of expressions to add the jumps to.
      */
-    ir_block *bbody      = NULL, *end_bbody      = NULL;
-    ir_block *bprecond   = NULL, *end_bprecond   = NULL;
-    ir_block *bpostcond  = NULL, *end_bpostcond  = NULL;
-    ir_block *bincrement = NULL, *end_bincrement = NULL;
-    ir_block *bout       = NULL, *bin            = NULL;
+    ir_block *bbody      = nullptr, *end_bbody      = nullptr;
+    ir_block *bprecond   = nullptr, *end_bprecond   = nullptr;
+    ir_block *bpostcond  = nullptr, *end_bpostcond  = nullptr;
+    ir_block *bincrement = nullptr, *end_bincrement = nullptr;
+    ir_block *bout       = nullptr, *bin            = nullptr;
 
     /* let's at least move the outgoing block to the end */
     size_t    bout_id;
 
     /* 'break' and 'continue' need to be able to find the right blocks */
-    ir_block *bcontinue     = NULL;
-    ir_block *bbreak        = NULL;
+    ir_block *bcontinue     = nullptr;
+    ir_block *bbreak        = nullptr;
 
-    ir_block *tmpblock      = NULL;
+    ir_block *tmpblock      = nullptr;
 
     (void)lvalue;
     (void)out;
 
-    if (self->expression.outr) {
+    if (self->outr) {
         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_loop cannot be reused, it bears no result!");
         return false;
     }
-    self->expression.outr = (ir_value*)1;
+    self->outr = (ir_value*)1;
 
     /* NOTE:
      * Should we ever need some kind of block ordering, better make this function
@@ -2858,7 +2843,7 @@ bool ast_loop_codegen(ast_loop *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value
 
         end_bprecond = func->curblock;
     } else {
-        bprecond = end_bprecond = NULL;
+        bprecond = end_bprecond = nullptr;
     }
 
     /* Now the next blocks won't be ordered nicely, but we need to
@@ -2870,7 +2855,7 @@ bool ast_loop_codegen(ast_loop *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value
             return false;
         bcontinue = bincrement; /* increment comes before the pre-loop-condition */
     } else {
-        bincrement = end_bincrement = NULL;
+        bincrement = end_bincrement = nullptr;
     }
 
     if (self->postcond) {
@@ -2879,10 +2864,10 @@ bool ast_loop_codegen(ast_loop *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value
             return false;
         bcontinue = bpostcond; /* postcond comes before the increment */
     } else {
-        bpostcond = end_bpostcond = NULL;
+        bpostcond = end_bpostcond = nullptr;
     }
 
-    bout_id = vec_size(func->ir_func->blocks);
+    bout_id = func->ir_func->blocks.size();
     bout = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "after_loop"));
     if (!bout)
         return false;
@@ -2898,11 +2883,11 @@ bool ast_loop_codegen(ast_loop *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value
         /* enter */
         func->curblock = bbody;
 
-        vec_push(func->breakblocks,    bbreak);
+        func->breakblocks.push_back(bbreak);
         if (bcontinue)
-            vec_push(func->continueblocks, bcontinue);
+            func->continueblocks.push_back(bcontinue);
         else
-            vec_push(func->continueblocks, bbody);
+            func->continueblocks.push_back(bbody);
 
         /* generate */
         if (self->body) {
@@ -2912,8 +2897,8 @@ bool ast_loop_codegen(ast_loop *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value
         }
 
         end_bbody = func->curblock;
-        vec_pop(func->breakblocks);
-        vec_pop(func->continueblocks);
+        func->breakblocks.pop_back();
+        func->continueblocks.pop_back();
     }
 
     /* post-loop-condition */
@@ -3026,8 +3011,8 @@ bool ast_loop_codegen(ast_loop *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value
     }
 
     /* Move 'bout' to the end */
-    vec_remove(func->ir_func->blocks, bout_id, 1);
-    vec_push(func->ir_func->blocks, bout);
+    func->ir_func->blocks.erase(func->ir_func->blocks.begin() + bout_id);
+    func->ir_func->blocks.emplace_back(bout);
 
     return true;
 }
@@ -3036,23 +3021,23 @@ bool ast_breakcont_codegen(ast_breakcont *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue,
 {
     ir_block *target;
 
-    *out = NULL;
+    *out = nullptr;
 
     if (lvalue) {
         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "break/continue expression is not an l-value");
         return false;
     }
 
-    if (self->expression.outr) {
+    if (self->outr) {
         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_breakcont cannot be reused!");
         return false;
     }
-    self->expression.outr = (ir_value*)1;
+    self->outr = (ir_value*)1;
 
     if (self->is_continue)
-        target = func->continueblocks[vec_size(func->continueblocks)-1-self->levels];
+        target = func->continueblocks[func->continueblocks.size()-1-self->levels];
     else
-        target = func->breakblocks[vec_size(func->breakblocks)-1-self->levels];
+        target = func->breakblocks[func->breakblocks.size()-1-self->levels];
 
     if (!target) {
         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "%s is lacking a target block", (self->is_continue ? "continue" : "break"));
@@ -3068,17 +3053,16 @@ bool ast_switch_codegen(ast_switch *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
 {
     ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
 
-    ast_switch_case *def_case     = NULL;
-    ir_block        *def_bfall    = NULL;
-    ir_block        *def_bfall_to = NULL;
+    ast_switch_case *def_case     = nullptr;
+    ir_block        *def_bfall    = nullptr;
+    ir_block        *def_bfall_to = nullptr;
     bool set_def_bfall_to = false;
 
-    ir_value *dummy     = NULL;
-    ir_value *irop      = NULL;
-    ir_block *bout      = NULL;
-    ir_block *bfall     = NULL;
+    ir_value *dummy     = nullptr;
+    ir_value *irop      = nullptr;
+    ir_block *bout      = nullptr;
+    ir_block *bfall     = nullptr;
     size_t    bout_id;
-    size_t    c;
 
     char      typestr[1024];
     uint16_t  cmpinstr;
@@ -3088,11 +3072,11 @@ bool ast_switch_codegen(ast_switch *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
         return false;
     }
 
-    if (self->expression.outr) {
+    if (self->outr) {
         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_switch cannot be reused!");
         return false;
     }
-    self->expression.outr = (ir_value*)1;
+    self->outr = (ir_value*)1;
 
     (void)lvalue;
     (void)out;
@@ -3101,7 +3085,7 @@ bool ast_switch_codegen(ast_switch *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
     if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->operand), func, false, &irop))
         return false;
 
-    if (!vec_size(self->cases))
+    if (self->cases.empty())
         return true;
 
     cmpinstr = type_eq_instr[irop->vtype];
@@ -3111,21 +3095,21 @@ bool ast_switch_codegen(ast_switch *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
         return false;
     }
 
-    bout_id = vec_size(func->ir_func->blocks);
+    bout_id = func->ir_func->blocks.size();
     bout = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "after_switch"));
     if (!bout)
         return false;
 
     /* setup the break block */
-    vec_push(func->breakblocks, bout);
+    func->breakblocks.push_back(bout);
 
     /* Now create all cases */
-    for (c = 0; c < vec_size(self->cases); ++c) {
+    for (auto &it : self->cases) {
         ir_value *cond, *val;
         ir_block *bcase, *bnot;
         size_t bnot_id;
 
-        ast_switch_case *swcase = &self->cases[c];
+        ast_switch_case *swcase = &it;
 
         if (swcase->value) {
             /* A regular case */
@@ -3139,7 +3123,7 @@ bool ast_switch_codegen(ast_switch *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
                 return false;
 
             bcase = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "case"));
-            bnot_id = vec_size(func->ir_func->blocks);
+            bnot_id = func->ir_func->blocks.size();
             bnot = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "not_case"));
             if (!bcase || !bnot)
                 return false;
@@ -3167,13 +3151,13 @@ bool ast_switch_codegen(ast_switch *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
 
             /* enter the else and move it down */
             func->curblock = bnot;
-            vec_remove(func->ir_func->blocks, bnot_id, 1);
-            vec_push(func->ir_func->blocks, bnot);
+            func->ir_func->blocks.erase(func->ir_func->blocks.begin() + bnot_id);
+            func->ir_func->blocks.emplace_back(bnot);
         } else {
             /* The default case */
             /* Remember where to fall through from: */
             def_bfall = bfall;
-            bfall     = NULL;
+            bfall     = nullptr;
             /* remember which case it was */
             def_case  = swcase;
             /* And the next case will be remembered */
@@ -3222,11 +3206,11 @@ bool ast_switch_codegen(ast_switch *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
     func->curblock = bout;
 
     /* restore the break block */
-    vec_pop(func->breakblocks);
+    func->breakblocks.pop_back();
 
     /* Move 'bout' to the end, it's nicer */
-    vec_remove(func->ir_func->blocks, bout_id, 1);
-    vec_push(func->ir_func->blocks, bout);
+    func->ir_func->blocks.erase(func->ir_func->blocks.begin() + bout_id);
+    func->ir_func->blocks.emplace_back(bout);
 
     return true;
 }
@@ -3240,7 +3224,7 @@ bool ast_label_codegen(ast_label *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_valu
         return false;
     }
 
-    *out = NULL;
+    *out = nullptr;
     if (lvalue) {
         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_label cannot be an lvalue");
         return false;
@@ -3271,7 +3255,7 @@ bool ast_label_codegen(ast_label *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_valu
 
 bool ast_goto_codegen(ast_goto *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
 {
-    *out = NULL;
+    *out = nullptr;
     if (lvalue) {
         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_goto cannot be an lvalue");
         return false;
@@ -3318,11 +3302,11 @@ bool ast_state_codegen(ast_state *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_valu
         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "not an l-value (state operation)");
         return false;
     }
-    if (self->expression.outr) {
+    if (self->outr) {
         compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_state cannot be reused!");
         return false;
     }
-    *out = NULL;
+    *out = nullptr;
 
     cgen = self->framenum->codegen;
     if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->framenum), func, false, &frameval))
@@ -3341,18 +3325,17 @@ bool ast_state_codegen(ast_state *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_valu
         return false;
     }
 
-    self->expression.outr = (ir_value*)1;
+    self->outr = (ir_value*)1;
     return true;
 }
 
 bool ast_call_codegen(ast_call *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
 {
     ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
-    ir_value              **params;
-    ir_instr               *callinstr;
-    size_t i;
+    std::vector<ir_value*> params;
+    ir_instr *callinstr;
 
-    ir_value *funval = NULL;
+    ir_value *funval = nullptr;
 
     /* return values are never lvalues */
     if (lvalue) {
@@ -3360,8 +3343,8 @@ bool ast_call_codegen(ast_call *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value
         return false;
     }
 
-    if (self->expression.outr) {
-        *out = self->expression.outr;
+    if (self->outr) {
+        *out = self->outr;
         return true;
     }
 
@@ -3371,17 +3354,15 @@ bool ast_call_codegen(ast_call *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value
     if (!funval)
         return false;
 
-    params = NULL;
-
     /* parameters */
     for (auto &it : self->params) {
         ir_value *param;
         cgen = it->codegen;
         if (!(*cgen)(it, func, false, &param))
-            goto error;
+            return false;
         if (!param)
-            goto error;
-        vec_push(params, param);
+            return false;
+        params.push_back(param);
     }
 
     /* varargs counter */
@@ -3402,20 +3383,15 @@ bool ast_call_codegen(ast_call *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value
                                      ast_function_label(func, "call"),
                                      funval, !!(self->func->flags & AST_FLAG_NORETURN));
     if (!callinstr)
-        goto error;
+        return false;
 
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(params); ++i) {
-        ir_call_param(callinstr, params[i]);
-    }
+    for (auto &it : params)
+        ir_call_param(callinstr, it);
 
     *out = ir_call_value(callinstr);
-    self->expression.outr = *out;
+    self->outr = *out;
 
     codegen_output_type(self, *out);
 
-    vec_free(params);
     return true;
-error:
-    vec_free(params);
-    return false;
 }